How to format your references using the Journal of Investigative Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Investigative Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nossal GJ. A purgative mastery. Nature. 2001;412(6848):685–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans JW, Thiel PA. Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science. 2010;330(6004):599–600
A journal article with 3 authors
Schweitzer MH, Wittmeyer JL, Horner JR. Gender-specific reproductive tissue in ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex. Science. 2005;308(5727):1456–60
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gasper WC, Marinov GK, Pauli-Behn F, Scott MT, Newberry K, DeSalvo G, et al. Fully automated high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation for ChIP-seq: identifying ChIP-quality p300 monoclonal antibodies. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5152

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong HA, Brasier MD. Microfossils. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing; 2004.
An edited book
Gutwirth S, Leenes R, De Hert P, editors. Reloading Data Protection: Multidisciplinary Insights and Contemporary Challenges. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Black DC, Donovan J, Bunton B, Keist A. Modules. In: Donovan J, Bunton B, Keist A, editors. SystemC: From the Ground Up. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 47–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How An Undergraduate Discovered Tubes Of Plasma In The Sky [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Finance: State and Federal Efforts to Target Poor Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jan Report No.: HEHS-98-36.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaghdoun E. Entre lettres et portraits: Madame Du Deffand, auteur? [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schlossberg T. After Fatal Crash, Pausing Before Picking a Train Seat. New York Times. 2015;A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nossal 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Evans and Thiel 2010; Nossal 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Thiel 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gasper et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Investigative Dermatology
AbbreviationJ. Invest. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)0022-202X
ISSN (online)1523-1747
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology

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