How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Villeval MC. Economics. Ready, steady, compete. Science. 2012;335:544–545.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Catania KC, Remple FE. Asymptotic prey profitability drives star-nosed moles to the foraging speed limit. Nature. 2005;433:519–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Thakur G, Prashanthi K, Thundat T. Directed self-assembly of proteins into discrete radial patterns. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1923.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Wu J, Boyle E, Sunda W, et al. Soluble and colloidal iron in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific. Science. 2001;293:847–849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Lahdenmäki T, Leach M. Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Vasilakos AV, Parashar M, Karnouskos S, et al., editors. Autonomic Communication. First. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Postorino V, Mazzone L. Feeding and Eating Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder. In: Mazzone L, Vitiello B, editors. Psychiatric Symptoms and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals Today.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. How Did The Turtle Get Its Shell? Fossil Discovery Gives Us A Clue [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-did-turtle-get-its-shell-fossil-discovery-gives-us-clue/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005. Report No.: GAO-05-865. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Mickels BJ. A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Brantley B. Curtain’s Up. Adulthood Can Wait. New York Times. 2017 Aug 15;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals Today
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst. Today
ISSN (print)1358-314X
ISSN (online)1464-5181
ScopeInorganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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