How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer E. Physics. Controlling friction atom by atom. Science. 2015;348:1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen X, Yan G-Y. Semi-supervised learning for potential human microRNA-disease associations inference. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry JB, Luo Y, Zhao R. Transforming the optical landscape. Science. 2015;348:521–524.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Enache DI, Edwards JK, Landon P, et al. Solvent-free oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes using Au-Pd/TiO2 catalysts. Science. 2006;311:362–365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Desmond KK. Ideas about Art. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Nasir A, editor. Clinical Dermatology Trials 101: A Primer for Dermatologists. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Flint KJ, Needham D. ‘Framing’ Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-First Century: Towards a Way of Thinking. In: Aspin DN, editor. Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals Today.

Blog post
Andrew D. New Data Shows Sexual Boundaries Are Changing – But What Do We Really Know? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. Report No.: T-RCED-95-142. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson AF. Anxiety in the process of individuation. An in-depth psychological study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meyer JA, Meyer LR. All Prosecution Is Local. New York Times. 2007 Mar 4;CT15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals Today
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst. Today
ISSN (print)1358-314X
ISSN (online)1464-5181
ScopeInorganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles