How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Montesi LGJ. Planetary science. Solving the mascon mystery. Science. 2013;340:1535–1536.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Roediger HL 3rd, McDermott KB. Neuroscience. Remember when? Science. 2011;333:47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Victor DG, Gerlagh R, Baiocchi G. Climate policy. Getting serious about categorizing countries. Science. 2014;345:34–36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Gillooly JF, Charnov EL, West GB, et al. Effects of size and temperature on developmental time. Nature. 2002;417:70–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Binnie C. Linux Server Security. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Apolloni B, Howlett RJ, Jain L, editors. Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 11th International Conference, KES 2007, XVII Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, Vietri sul Mare, Italy, September 12-14, 2007. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Mahajan D, Ramamoorthi R, Curless B. A Theory of Spherical Harmonic Identities for BRDF/Lighting Transfer and Image Consistency. In: Leonardis A, Bischof H, Pinz A, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2006: 9th European Conference on Computer Vision, Graz, Austria, May 7-13, 2006, Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals Today.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. China’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Could Peak Within 10 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/chinese-greenhouse-gas-emissions-could-peak-within-10-years/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Resolving Discrimination Complaints Has Improved With New Processing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999. Report No.: HEHS-99-47R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Accortt EE. Frontal alpha electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry as a risk factor for pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); a psychophysiological and family history approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Schwartz J. When an Executive Acts Like a Spoiled Brat. New York Times. 2017 Jul 14;BU14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals Today
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst. Today
ISSN (print)1358-314X
ISSN (online)1464-5181
ScopeInorganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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