How to format your references using the Spermatogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spermatogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin-Frankel J. Clinical trials. Researchers seek clear reasons when clinical trials end early. Science 2015; 349:222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woyke T, Rubin EM. Evolution. Searching for new branches on the tree of life. Science 2014; 346:698–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scatena LF, Brown MG, Richmond GL. Water at hydrophobic surfaces: weak hydrogen bonding and strong orientation effects. Science 2001; 292:908–12.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sacco A, Doyonnas R, Kraft P, Vitorovic S, Blau HM. Self-renewal and expansion of single transplanted muscle stem cells. Nature 2008; 456:502–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tattar PN, Ramaiah S, Manjunath BG. A Course in Statistics With R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Pies I, Koslowski P, editors. Corporate Citizenship and New Governance: The Political Role of Corporations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Moskos P. Observations on the Making of a Police Officer. In: Maltz MD, Rice SK, editors. Envisioning Criminology: Researchers on Research as a Process of Discovery. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spermatogenesis.

Blog post
Luntz S. Knowing Names Makes Cooperation More Likely. IFLScience2017;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Observations on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Fiscal Year 2000 Performance Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffmann M. An exploratory study: Mobile device use for academics. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. For the Chief Justice, a Dissent and a Line in the Sand. New York Times2007; :WK12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSpermatogenesis
ISSN (print)2156-5554
ISSN (online)2156-5562

Other styles