How to format your references using the Spermatogenesis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spermatogenesis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGraw R. Humidity, ice, and nitric acid. Science 2004; 304:961–3; author reply 961-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colton RJ, Russell JN Jr. Counterterrorism. Making the world a safer place. Science 2003; 299:1324–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hays GC, Houghton JDR, Myers AE. Endangered species: Pan-Atlantic leatherback turtle movements. Nature 2004; 429:522.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Reilly DJ, Taylor JM, Petta JR, Marcus CM, Hanson MP, Gossard AC. Suppressing spin qubit dephasing by nuclear state preparation. Science 2008; 321:817–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley CL, Fiebrich JD. Collaborative Process Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Ortiz Á, Franco RD, Gasquet PG, editors. Balanced Automation Systems for Future Manufacturing Networks: 9th IFIP WG 5.5 International Conference, BASYS 2010, Valencia, Spain, July 21-23, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chau O, Goeleven D, Oujja R. Variational Inequality Models Arising in the Study of Viscoelastic Materials. In: Rassias TM, Pardalos PM, editors. Mathematics Without Boundaries: Surveys in Pure Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. page 93–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spermatogenesis.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Argue With Anti-Vaxxers, According To Science. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Government’s Use of International Data Corporation’s Subscription Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLean MR. Analyzing the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement of women in academic medicine pursuing midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level administrative positions: Implications for career advancement strategies. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jacoby S. Sick and Tired of ‘God Bless America.’ New York Times2016; :SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSpermatogenesis
ISSN (print)2156-5554
ISSN (online)2156-5562

Other styles