How to format your references using the Archives of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brumfiel G. Bush seeks to beef up US nuclear-weapons arsenal. Nature. 2003;422:101–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kuwayama H, Ishida S. Biological soliton in multicellular movement. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2272.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cordier P, Amodeo J, Carrez P. Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth’s mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates. Nature. 2012;481:177–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bamber JL, Riva REM, Vermeersen BLA, LeBrocq AM. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science. 2009;324:901–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Levene M. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Johannes WJ. Gravity Interpretation: Fundamentals and Application of Gravity Inversion and Geological Interpretation. Smilde PL, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fairclough SR. Choanoflagellates: Perspective on the Origin of Animal Multicellularity. In: Ruiz-Trillo I, Nedelcu AM, editors. Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life: Principles and mechanisms. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Public Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Artificial Sweeteners Associated With Glucose Intolerance [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/artificial-sweeteners-associated-glucose-intolerance/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Policies and Rules Concerning Children’s Television Programming--Revision of Programming Policies for Television Broadcast Stations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: OGC-96-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lopez V. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: A policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mcbride K. When It’s O.K. to Pay for a Story. New York Times. 2015 Jun 9;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Public Health
AbbreviationArch. Public Health
ISSN (online)2049-3258
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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