How to format your references using the Archives of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Roederer M. Leonard Herzenberg (1931-2013). Nature. 2013;504:34.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kim J, Swager TM. Control of conformational and interpolymer effects in conjugated polymers. Nature. 2001;411:1030–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ilonidis S, Zhao J, Kosovichev A. Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior. Science. 2011;333:993–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hirabayashi K, Nakazawa Y, Sakashita K, Kurata T, Saito S, Yoshikawa K, et al. Reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for pediatric hematological malignancies. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zecchina A, Califano S. The Development of Catalysis. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Rabl T, Raghunath N, Poess M, Bhandarkar M, Jacobsen H-A, Baru C, editors. Advancing Big Data Benchmarks: Proceedings of the 2013 Workshop Series on Big Data Benchmarking,, Xi’an, China, July16-17, 2013 and, San José, CA, USA, October 9-10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fujii K. Role of RANS, Hybrid and LES for Wing Flow Simulations at Relatively Low Reynolds Numbers. In: Fu S, Haase W, Peng S-H, Schwamborn D, editors. Progress in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling: Papers Contributed to the 4th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, Beijing, China, September 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Public Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. High-Fat Diet Made Inuits Healthier But Shorter Thanks To Gene Mutations, Study Finds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Deaf Education: The National Mission of Gallaudet’s Elementary and Secondary Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: HRD-87-133.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Simmons-Johnson N. The path to graduation: A model interactive Web site design supporting doctoral students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly S. Beware of the Westminster Kennel’s Best in Show. New York Times. 2003 Feb 16;42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Public Health
AbbreviationArch. Public Health
ISSN (online)2049-3258
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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