How to format your references using the Archives of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brumfiel G. Pumping row erodes hopes for underground lab. Nature. 2003;423:674.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Martin CR, Baker LA. Materials science. Expanding the molecular electronics toolbox. Science. 2005;309:67–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Falnes PØ, Johansen RF, Seeberg E. AlkB-mediated oxidative demethylation reverses DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2002;419:178–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Morth JP, Pedersen BP, Toustrup-Jensen MS, Sørensen TL-M, Petersen J, Andersen JP, et al. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump. Nature. 2007;450:1043–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dooner DB. Kinematic Geometry of Gearing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Tapper T. Oxford, the Collegiate University: Conflict, Consensus and Continuity. Palfreyman D, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Léon G. Cooperative Models for Information Technology Transfer in the Context of Open Innovation. In: McMaster T, Wastell D, Ferneley E, DeGross JI, editors. Organizational Dynamics of Technology-Based Innovation: Diversifying the Research Agenda: IFIP TC 8 WG 86 International Working Conference, June 14–16, Manchester, UK. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 43–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Public Health.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Ancient 3,800-Year-Old Underwater Garden Discovered In The Pacific Northwest [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/ancient-3800yearold-underwater-garden-discovered-in-the-pacific-northwest/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisitions and Keys to Achieving Them. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-626T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ward CS. Movin’ Around [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Marx L. The Gown Is Free, the Salute Heartfelt. New York Times. 2015 Nov 8;ST23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Public Health
AbbreviationArch. Public Health
ISSN (online)2049-3258
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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