How to format your references using the Archives of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hestmark G. Oeconomia Naturae L. Nature. 2000;405:19.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Devos DP, Reynaud EG. Evolution. Intermediate steps. Science. 2010;330:1187–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zheng N, Bu X, Feng P. Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature. 2003;426:428–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Siretanu I, Ebeling D, Andersson MP, Stipp SLS, Philipse A, Stuart MC, et al. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Walter RJ. Local Emergency Planning Committee Guidebook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
1. Janson CG. Peptide Nucleic Acids, Morpholinos and Related Antisense Biomolecules. During MJ, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Delerablée C, Paillier P, Pointcheval D. Fully Collusion Secure Dynamic Broadcast Encryption with Constant-Size Ciphertexts or Decryption Keys. In: Takagi T, Okamoto T, Okamoto E, Okamoto T, editors. Pairing-Based Cryptography – Pairing 2007: First International Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 2-4, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 39–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Public Health.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How Did Palm Oil Become Such A Problem — And What Can We Do About It? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Greater Coordination and a More Effective Policy Needed for International Telecommunications Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: CED-78-87.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bracht KD. Causes of nonattendance and its effect on student achievement at the high school level [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Once a Fill-In Keeper, Now a Winning Scorer. New York Times. 2011 Oct 31;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Public Health
AbbreviationArch. Public Health
ISSN (online)2049-3258
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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