How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R. EASTERN EUROPE: Science Survives in Breakaway States. Science. 2000;290:692–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldhaber-Gordon I, Goldhaber-Gordon D. Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 6. Nature. 2005;433:805.
A journal article with 3 authors
Venditti C, Meade A, Pagel M. Multiple routes to mammalian diversity. Nature. 2011;479:393–396.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stassun KG, Mathieu RD, Cargile PA, et al. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of “identical twin” stars. Nature. 2008;453:1079–1082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonald T, Feuillet M. Network Performance Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Amato F. Finite-Time Stability and Control. Ambrosino R, Ariola M, Cosentino C, et al., editors. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bailey JP, Nagel J, Raghavan S. Ex-Post Internet Charging. In: Raghavan S, Golden B, Wasil E, editors. Telecommunications Modeling, Policy, and Technology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E. Robocabs: How Long Before you Ditch Your Car for a Driverless Electric Taxi? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration’s Office of Intelligence: Responses to Posthearing Questions Regarding Secure Flight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006. Report No.: GAO-06-1051R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGowan HC. The military experience: Perceptions from senior military officers’ wives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M, Kolata G. New to Most Fans, IGF-1 Has Long Been Banned as a Performance Enhancer. New York Times. 2013 Jan 30;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals Reviews
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst. Rev.
ISSN (print)2168-0396
ISSN (online)2168-0418
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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