How to format your references using the Liquid Crystals Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liquid Crystals Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M. The best is yet to come. Nature. 2007;447:39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helbing D, Pournaras E. Society: Build digital democracy. Nature. 2015;527:33–34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kessler D, Gase K, Baldwin IT. Field experiments with transformed plants reveal the sense of floral scents. Science. 2008;321:1200–1202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li K, Eres G, Howe J, et al. Self-assembly of graphene on carbon nanotube surfaces. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zneimer SM. Cytogenetic Abnormalities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Öchsner A. One-Dimensional Finite Elements: An Introduction to the FE Method. Merkel M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Burgeth B, Kleefeld A. Order Based Morphology for Color Images via Matrix Fields. In: Westin C-F, Vilanova A, Burgeth B, editors. Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 75–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liquid Crystals Reviews.

Blog post
Carpineti A. One Third Of Humanity Can’t See The Milky Way In The Night Sky. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s ATS-6 Communications Satellite To Broadcast Educational Television Programs in India. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976. Report No.: ID-76-75. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black DD. Franz Liszt’s “Via Crucis”: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Downs JS, Loewenstein G, Wisdom J. Eating by the Numbers. New York Times. 2009 Nov 13;A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiquid Crystals Reviews
AbbreviationLiq. Cryst. Rev.
ISSN (print)2168-0396
ISSN (online)2168-0418
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles