How to format your references using the Life Sciences, Society and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Life Sciences, Society and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Rewarding season. Nature. 2004 Oct 21;431(7011):1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Verheyden JM, Sun X. An Fgf/Gremlin inhibitory feedback loop triggers termination of limb bud outgrowth. Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):638–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ioannou CC, Guttal V, Couzin ID. Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey. Science. 2012 Sep 7;337(6099):1212–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bethke A, Fielenbach N, Wang Z, Mangelsdorf DJ, Antebi A. Nuclear hormone receptor regulation of microRNAs controls developmental progression. Science. 2009 Apr 3;324(5923):95–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge M. Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Warwick D. Handbook of Thromboprophylaxis. Second Edition. Gozzard D, Perry D, editors. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Michaelis G, Pratje E. Extranuclear Inheritance: Genetics and Biogenesis of Mitochondria. In: Esser K, Löttge U, Beyschlag W, Murata J, editors. Progress in Botany. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 80–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Life Sciences, Society and Policy.

Blog post
Hale T. Purps The Penguin Gets A New 3D-Printed Boot To Help With Her Injury [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/purps-the-penguin-gets-a-new-3dprinted-boot-to-help-with-her-injury/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information System Security in Federal Civilian Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: T-IMTEC-87-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar L. Perceived life satisfaction of previously undocumented Latino immigrants [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Keeping Up With His Followers. New York Times. 2013 Oct 24;E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Verheyden and Sun 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Verheyden and Sun 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bethke et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLife Sciences, Society and Policy
AbbreviationLife Sci. Soc. Policy
ISSN (online)2195-7819
Scope

Other styles