How to format your references using the Limnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weertman JR (2012) Materials science. Retaining the nano in nanocrystalline alloys. Science 337:921–922
A journal article with 2 authors
Shneiderman B, Preece J (2007) Public health. Science 315:944
A journal article with 3 authors
Richmond BJ, Liu Z, Shidara M (2003) Neuroscience. Predicting future rewards. Science 301:179–180
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ramesh P, Baroji YF, Reihani SNS, et al (2013) FBAR syndapin 1 recognizes and stabilizes highly curved tubular membranes in a concentration dependent manner. Sci Rep 3:1565

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duhon T (2012) How the Trading Floor Really Works. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Acuña ST, Juristo N (eds) (2005) Software Process Modeling. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Oneal JR, Russett BM (2015) The Kantian Peace: The Pacific Benefits of Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885–1992. In: Starr H (ed) Bruce M. Russett: Pioneer in the Scientific and Normative Study of War, Peace, and Policy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 74–108

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Bedbug Trap On The Way. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Aviation Security: Technology’s Role in Addressing Vulnerabilities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shlapak A (2013) Mental health of foster youth in Ventura County. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2017) Vape Shops Fear Effects Of New F.D.A. Rules. New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weertman 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Shneiderman and Preece 2007; Weertman 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shneiderman and Preece 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ramesh et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnology
AbbreviationLimnology (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1439-8621
ISSN (online)1439-863X
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology

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