How to format your references using the Limnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orbach RL (2011) Retrospective. John Harmen Marburger III (1941-2011). Science 333:1233
A journal article with 2 authors
McAdams HH, Shapiro L (2003) A bacterial cell-cycle regulatory network operating in time and space. Science 301:1874–1877
A journal article with 3 authors
Kempner J, Perlis CS, Merz JF (2005) Ethics. Forbidden knowledge. Science 307:854
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ruiz R, Kang H, Detcheverry FA, et al (2008) Density multiplication and improved lithography by directed block copolymer assembly. Science 321:936–939

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kieser J, Taylor M, Carr D (2012) Forensic Biomechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Borsali R, Pecora R (eds) (2008) Soft Matter Characterization. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Olesen MC, Hansen RR, Larsen KG (2016) An Automata-Based Approach to Trace Partitioned Abstract Interpretation. In: Probst CW, Hankin C, Hansen RR (eds) Semantics, Logics, and Calculi: Essays Dedicated to Hanne Riis Nielson and Flemming Nielson on the Occasion of Their 60th Birthdays. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 88–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Climate Change Denier Scott Pruitt Confirmed As Head Of EPA. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Surface Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Manage Risk, Improve Coordination, and Measure Performance, but Additional Actions Would Enhance Its Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frantz DE (2014) The effects of Aroclor 1254 on the reproductive function of male round stingrays (Urobatis halleri). Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bohlen C (2017) Ancient Georgian Culture, Set to Music. New York Times TR1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Orbach 2011).
This sentence cites two references (McAdams and Shapiro 2003; Orbach 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McAdams and Shapiro 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ruiz et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnology
AbbreviationLimnology (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1439-8621
ISSN (online)1439-863X
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology

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