How to format your references using the Limnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murphy AB (2014) Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas. Sci Rep 4:4304
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson DL, King SD (2014) Geology. Driving the Earth machine? Science 346:1184–1185
A journal article with 3 authors
Beachy PA, Karhadkar SS, Berman DM (2004) Mending and malignancy. Nature 431:402
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okada Y, Scott G, Ray MK, et al (2007) Histone demethylase JHDM2A is critical for Tnp1 and Prm1 transcription and spermatogenesis. Nature 450:119–123

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vakkur NV, Herrera ZJ (2013) Corporate Governance Regulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ylirisku S (2007) Designing with video: Focusing the user-centred design process. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Garnier E, Adams N, Sagaut P (2009) Functional Modeling. In: Adams N, Sagaut P (eds) Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 77–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Infected Bumblebees Self-Medicate In The Wild. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson K (2015) Development of a facility-specific dietary training program for diet technicians. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Underdog’s Feat Is Inspiration for Cricket’s Dreamers. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Murphy 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Murphy 2014; Anderson and King 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and King 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Okada et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnology
AbbreviationLimnology (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1439-8621
ISSN (online)1439-863X
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology

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