How to format your references using the Limnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korte M (2009) Neuroscience. Bridging the gap and staying local. Science 324:1527–1528
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirschberg J, Manning CD (2015) Advances in natural language processing. Science 349:261–266
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghoshal G, Chi L, Barabási A-L (2013) Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution. Sci Rep 3:2920
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kuang C, Li S, Liu W, et al (2013) Breaking the diffraction barrier using fluorescence emission difference microscopy. Sci Rep 3:1441

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
De Spiegeleer J, Schoutens W, Van Hulle C (2014) The Handbook of Hybrid Securities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Deng Z, Gopinathan S, Lee CK-E (eds) (2013) Globalization and the Singapore Curriculum: From Policy to Classroom. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Bauböck R (2013) Modelling Site-Specific Biomass Potentials. In: Ruppert H, Kappas M, Ibendorf J (eds) Sustainable Bioenergy Production - An Integrated Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 111–139

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnology.

Blog post
Evans K (2016) 15 “Facts” About Sleep That Are Completely Wrong. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Airport Funding: Changes in Aviation Activity Are Reflected in Reduced Capacity Concerns. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuller JB (2015) The Woodsman’s Son. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Landler M (2017) Trump Expected to Back NATO Mutual Aid Pledge. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korte 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Korte 2009; Hirschberg and Manning 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirschberg and Manning 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnology
AbbreviationLimnology (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1439-8621
ISSN (online)1439-863X
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology

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