How to format your references using the WAO Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for WAO Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bolker J. Model organisms: There’s more to life than rats and flies. Nature. 2012;491(7422):31-33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siaj M, McBreen PH. Creating, varying, and growing single-site molecular contacts. Science. 2005;309(5734):588-590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ribeiro B, Perra N, Baronchelli A. Quantifying the effect of temporal resolution on time-varying networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3006.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ravasz E, Somera AL, Mongru DA, Oltvai ZN, Barabási AL. Hierarchical organization of modularity in metabolic networks. Science. 2002;297(5586):1551-1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Black R. Pragmatic Software Testing. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lemle E. Two Bit Circus and the Future of Entertainment. (Bomkamp K, Williams MK, Cutbirth E, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Blake GM. The Clinical Role of Bone Density Scans in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis. In: Adler RA, ed. Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010:77-95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for WAO Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Large Magellanic Cloud Might Have A New Satellite. IFLScience. Published October 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems Affecting Operations at the St. Louis Postal Data Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters B. From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. April 21, 2017:MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWAO Journal
AbbreviationWorld Allergy Organ. J.
ISSN (print)1939-4551
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

Other styles