How to format your references using the Cybium citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cybium. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
CATANIA, K., 2014. - The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel. Science, 346: 1231–1234.
A journal article with 2 authors
MARRAFFINI, L.A. & SONTHEIMER, E.J., 2008. - CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science, 322: 1843–1845.
A journal article with 3 authors
PENDRY, J.B., LUO, Y., & ZHAO, R., 2015. - Transforming the optical landscape. Science, 348: 521–524.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
AALTO, R., MAURICE-BOURGOIN, L., DUNNE, T., MONTGOMERY, D.R., NITTROUER, C.A., & GUYOT, J.-L., 2003. - Episodic sediment accumulation on Amazonian flood plains influenced by El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Nature, 425: 493–497.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
METZGER, R.M., 2012. - The Physical Chemist’s Toolbox. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
NGUYEN, L. & HIPPENMEYER, S., eds., 2014. - Cellular and Molecular Control of Neuronal Migration. X, 186 p. 44 illus., 42 illus. in color p., Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
ANDERSEN, J.V. & NOWAK, A., 2013. - A Psychological Galilean Principle for Price Movements: Fundamental Framework for Technical Analysis. In: An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Nowak, A., ed.). pp. 77–91. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cybium.

Blog post
HALE, T., 2016. - WWF Plans To Buy Shark Fishing Licenses So No One Else Can Use Them [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, 2008. - Aviation and the Environment: Initial Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Projects Reduce Emissions, and FAA Plans to Assess the Program’s Overall Performance as Participation Increases ( No. GAO-09-37). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BARRIE, D.B., 2010. - On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather (Doctoral dissertation)Doctoral dissertationCollege Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, C., 2009. - Antiques Dealers Still Scoring Big Sales. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catania, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Marraffini and Sontheimer, 2008; Catania, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marraffini and Sontheimer, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Aalto et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCybium
ISSN (print)0399-0974
ISSN (online)2101-0315

Other styles