How to format your references using the Cybium citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cybium. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
SAPIENZA, C., 2007. - Molecular biology. Do Watson and Crick motor from X to Z? Science, 315: 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
PEDRAZA, J.M. & PAULSSON, J., 2008. - Effects of molecular memory and bursting on fluctuations in gene expression. Science, 319: 339–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
ALIMARDANI, M., NISHIO, S., & ISHIGURO, H., 2013. - Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators. Sci. Rep., 3: 2396.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
ANTONAGLIA, J., XIE, X., SCHWARZ, G., WRAITH, M., QIAO, J., ZHANG, Y., LIAW, P.K., UHL, J.T., & DAHMEN, K.A., 2014. - Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses. Sci. Rep., 4: 4382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ANDERSON, J.B., 2017. - Bandwidth Efficient Coding. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
HUNEMAN, P., LAMBERT, G., & SILBERSTEIN, M., eds., 2015. - Classification, Disease and Evidence: New Essays in the Philosophy of Medicine. XX, 211 p. 2 illus p., History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
NEEDHAM, T., 2014. - Visual Differential Geometry and Beltrami’s Hyperbolic Plane. In: The Art of Science: From Perspective Drawing to Quantum Randomness (Lupacchini, R., & Angelini, A., eds.). pp. 71–99. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cybium.

Blog post
FANG, J., 2015. - Male Seahorse Pregnancies Aren’t That Peculiar [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, 1993. - Space Station: Program Instability and Cost Growth Continue Pending Redesign ( No. NSIAD-93-187). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
GRIFFITH, A., 2017. - The Curious Case of Implementation: Enactment of the California Community College Student Equity Initiative (Doctoral dissertation)Doctoral dissertationLong Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BURNS, A. & SHEAR, M.D., 2017. - Trump Turmoil Is Confounding G.O.P. Agenda. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sapienza, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sapienza, 2007; Pedraza and Paulsson, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedraza and Paulsson, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Antonaglia et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCybium
ISSN (print)0399-0974
ISSN (online)2101-0315

Other styles