How to format your references using the Cybium citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cybium. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
WILLIAMS, T., 2014. - Climate science: How Antarctic ice retreats. Nature, 510: 39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
EKSTRÖM, G. & STARK, C.P., 2013. - Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science, 339: 1416–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
CANFIELD, D.E., POULTON, S.W., & NARBONNE, G.M., 2007. - Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life. Science, 315: 92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
HALLER, E., GUSTAVSSON, M., MARK, M.J., DANZL, J.G., HART, R., PUPILLO, G., & NÄGERL, H.-C., 2009. - Realization of an excited, strongly correlated quantum gas phase. Science, 325: 1224–1227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
FREEMAN, R.L., 2002. - Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
DRIOLI, E. & GIORNO, L., eds., 2016. - Encyclopedia of Membranes. 968 illus., 464 illus. in color. eReference p. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
POPPER, A.N., HAWKINS, A.D., FAY, R.R., MANN, D.A., BARTOL, S., CARLSON, T.J., COOMBS, S., ELLISON, W.T., GENTRY, R.L., HALVORSEN, M.B., LØKKEBORG, S., ROGERS, P.H., SOUTHALL, B.L., ZEDDIES, D.G., & TAVOLGA, W.N., 2014. - Classification of Fishes and Sea Turtles with Respect to Sound Exposure Risk. In: ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report Prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and Registered with ANSI, SpringerBriefs in Oceanography (Hawkins, A.D., Fay, R.R., Mann, D.A., Bartol, S., Carlson, T.J., Coombs, S., Ellison, W.T., Gentry, R.L., Halvorsen, M.B., Løkkeborg, S., Rogers, P.H., Southall, B.L., Zeddies, D.G., & Tavolga, W.N., eds.). pp. 15–16. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cybium.

Blog post
HAMILTON, K., 2016. - American Medical Association Warns Of Health And Safety Problems From “White” LED Streetlights [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, 2005. - Aviation Security: Flight and Cabin Crew Member Security Training Strengthened, but Better Planning and Internal Controls Needed ( No. GAO-05-781). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MCCLENAHAN, A., 2017. - The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail (Doctoral dissertation)Doctoral dissertationCarpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
SCHULMAN, M., 2017. - Living His Truth. New York Times, ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Williams, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ekström and Stark, 2013; Williams, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ekström and Stark, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Haller et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCybium
ISSN (print)0399-0974
ISSN (online)2101-0315

Other styles