How to format your references using the Cybium citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cybium. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
TROMANS, A., 2000. - Plant biology. Volatile defence. Nature, 408: 785.
A journal article with 2 authors
BOLLER, T. & HE, S.Y., 2009. - Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science, 324: 742–744.
A journal article with 3 authors
WILSON, A.M., WATSON, J.C., & LICHTWARK, G.A., 2003. - Biomechanics: A catapult action for rapid limb protraction. Nature, 421: 35–36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
MORGAN, V., DELMOTTE, M., VAN OMMEN, T., JOUZEL, J., CHAPPELLAZ, J., WOON, S., MASSON-DELMOTTE, V., & RAYNAUD, D., 2002. - Relative timing of deglacial climate events in Antarctica and Greenland. Science, 297: 1862–1864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
BALAKRISHNAN, N. & KOUTRAS, M.V., 2001. - Runs and Scans with Applications: Balakrishnan/Runs, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
BADDELEY, A., 2007. - Stochastic Geometry: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Martina Franca, Italy, September 13–18, 2004. XII, 292 p. 36 illus p., Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
ANGLUIN, D., ASPNES, J., & EISENSTAT, D., 2007. - A Simple Population Protocol for Fast Robust Approximate Majority. In: Distributed Computing: 21st International Symposium, DISC 2007, Lemesos, Cyprus, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Pelc, A., ed.). pp. 20–32. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cybium.

Blog post
HALE, T., 2017. - Critically Endangered “Fairy Possum” Is Stuck In A Catch-22 Situation [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, 1988. - Bridge Condition Assessment: Inaccurate Data May Cause Inequities in the Apportionment of Federal-Aid Funds ( No. RCED-88-75). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
RAJAGOPAL, S., 2012. - Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US (Doctoral dissertation)Doctoral dissertationTucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KISHKOVSKY, S., 2004. - Magazine Is New in Moscow, but Looks Familiar to New York. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tromans, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Tromans, 2000; Boller and He, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boller and He, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Morgan et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCybium
ISSN (print)0399-0974
ISSN (online)2101-0315

Other styles