How to format your references using the Limnologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J., 2011. A long shadow over Fukushima. Nature 472, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Floyd, S.K., Bowman, J.L., 2004. Gene regulation: ancient microRNA target sequences in plants. Nature 428, 485–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blake, R.E., Chang, S.J., Lepland, A., 2010. Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean. Nature 464, 1029–1032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S., Rotaru, A.-E., Shrestha, P.M., Malvankar, N.S., Liu, F., Fan, W., Nevin, K.P., Lovley, D.R., 2014. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar. Sci. Rep. 4, 5019.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, M., Bieker, G., 2009. Mastering. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Benediktovich, A., 2014. Theoretical Concepts of X-Ray Nanoscale Analysis: Theory and Applications, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Brandão, S., Parente, M., Silva, A.R., Da Roza, T., Mascarenhas, T., Ramos, I., Natal Jorge, R.M., 2015. The Impairment of Female Pelvic Ligaments and Its Relation With Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: Biomechanical Analysis, in: Tavares, J.M.R.S., Natal Jorge, R.M. (Eds.), Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences: Methods and Applications: ICCEBS 2013 -- International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnologica.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. How We’re Saving The Mountain Chicken Frog From One Of The World’s Worst Wildlife Diseases [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. FirstNet: Efforts to Establish the Public-Safety Broadband Network (No. GAO-17-702T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzanares, M.E., 2012. Effect of a preoperative multidisciplinary education program on weight management after bariatric surgery (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2015. A Tangle of Rulings for Pension Cuts. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Floyd and Bowman, 2004; Smith, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Floyd and Bowman, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnologica
ISSN (print)0075-9511
ScopeAquatic Science

Other styles