How to format your references using the Limnologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astudillo Besnier, P., 2014. Chile needs better science governance and support. Nature 511, 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pereira, G., Schiebel, E., 2003. Separase regulates INCENP-Aurora B anaphase spindle function through Cdc14. Science 302, 2120–2124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foley, S.F., Buhre, S., Jacob, D.E., 2003. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction. Nature 421, 249–252.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Paladini, C., Baron, F., Jorissen, A., Le Bouquin, J.-B., Freytag, B., Van Eck, S., Wittkowski, M., Hron, J., Chiavassa, A., Berger, J.-P., Siopis, C., Mayer, A., Sadowski, G., Kravchenko, K., Shetye, S., Kerschbaum, F., Kluska, J., Ramstedt, S., 2018. Large granulation cells on the surface of the giant star π1 Gruis. Nature 553, 310–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Green, S.D., 2011. Making Sense of Construction Improvement. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Cheung, N.-K.V., Cohn, S.L. (Eds.), 2005. Neuroblastoma, Pediatric Oncology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pascha, W., 2007. On the Time Lag between Technology Policy and FDI Policy in Korea - A Comment on Jin-Hyo Joseph Yun’s Paper, in: Mahlich, J.C., Pascha, W. (Eds.), Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 55–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnologica.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Can Hickeys Really Cause Some People To Have A Stroke? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. DOD Still Needs To Clarify Policies for Performing Research and Development for Other Agencies (No. PSAD-80-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vail, A.S., 2012. The gift of noetic image: Spontaneous imagery and psychological well-being in women with breast cancer (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006. No-Frills Cuban Fare, and Cheer. New York Times NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Astudillo Besnier, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Astudillo Besnier, 2014; Pereira and Schiebel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pereira and Schiebel, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Paladini et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnologica
ISSN (print)0075-9511
ScopeAquatic Science

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