How to format your references using the Limnologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M., 2001. Cancer research. Transatlantic war over BRCA1 patent. Science 292, 1818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Venkatesan, A.K., Halden, R.U., 2014. Wastewater treatment plants as chemical observatories to forecast ecological and human health risks of manmade chemicals. Sci. Rep. 4, 3731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sellman, B.R., Mourez, M., Collier, R.J., 2001. Dominant-negative mutants of a toxin subunit: an approach to therapy of anthrax. Science 292, 695–697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garrido, J.J., Giraud, P., Carlier, E., Fernandes, F., Moussif, A., Fache, M.-P., Debanne, D., Dargent, B., 2003. A targeting motif involved in sodium channel clustering at the axonal initial segment. Science 300, 2091–2094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armaroli, N., Balzani, V., Serpone, N., 2013. Powering Planet Earth. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Castro, A.J.M., 2014. A New Approach for Disruption Management in Airline Operations Control, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ventegodt, S., Flensborg-Madsen, T., Andersen, N.J., Nielsen, M., Mohammed, M., Merrick, J., 2005. Global Quality of Life (QOL), Health and Ability Are Primarily Determined by Our Consciousness. Research Findings from Denmark 1991–2004, in: Shek, D.T.L., Chan, Y.K., Lee, P.S.N. (Eds.), Quality-of-Life Research in Chinese, Western and Global Contexts, Social Indicators Research Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 87–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnologica.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Cause For Astronaut Sight Problems Discovered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed (No. GAO-13-695T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, W.B., 2010. High school athletics and the “whole adolescent”: A case study of three urban high schools (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: F.B.I Rules Premier’s Death Was Accidental. New York Times A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Balter, 2001; Venkatesan and Halden, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Venkatesan and Halden, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Garrido et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnologica
ISSN (print)0075-9511
ScopeAquatic Science

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