How to format your references using the Limnologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Branscomb, L.M., 2008. Science and industry. Research alone is not enough. Science 321, 915–916.
A journal article with 2 authors
Diamond, J., Bellwood, P., 2003. Farmers and their languages: the first expansions. Science 300, 597–603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, S.-M., Chen, W., Wang, J., 2014. Distinguishing between cancer cell differentiation and resistance induced by all-trans retinoic acid using transcriptional profiles and functional pathway analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 5577.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Korniss, G., Novotny, M.A., Guclu, H., Toroczkai, Z., Rikvold, P.A., 2003. Suppressing roughness of virtual times in parallel discrete-event simulations. Science 299, 677–679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ho, R.J.Y., Gibaldi, M., 2003. Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Azar, A.T., Vaidyanathan, S. (Eds.), 2015. Chaos Modeling and Control Systems Design, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Danis, R.P., Bingaman, D.P., 2008. Neovascularization in Models of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion, in: Penn, J.S. (Ed.), Retinal and Choroidal Angiogenesis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 103–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnologica.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Oceans Are Becoming Too Hot For Coral, And Sooner Than We Expected [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1969. Useful Techniques for Examining Automated Data Processing Systems (No. 091168). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jiang, W., 2010. Advanced techniques for semantic concept detection in general videos (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles, F., 2016. Police Officers Are Haunted by Grisly Scene Inside Orlando Club. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Branscomb, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Branscomb, 2008; Diamond and Bellwood, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Diamond and Bellwood, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Korniss et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnologica
ISSN (print)0075-9511
ScopeAquatic Science

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