How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basri, G., 2006. Astronomy. Big fields on small stars. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, 618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenberg, C., Goldhirsch, I., 2005. Friction enhances elasticity in granular solids. Nature 435, 188–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boudvillain, M., Lencastre, A. de, Pyle, A.M., 2000. A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron. Nature 406, 315–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosenbaum, R.S., Stuss, D.T., Levine, B., Tulving, E., 2007. Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, 1257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratliff, T.A., 2005. The Laboratory Quality Assurance System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ho, T.-Y., 2007. Full-Chip Nanometer Routing Techniques, Analog Circuits And Signal Processing Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chow, J.H., Galarza, R.J., 2013. Excitation System Aggregation. In: Chow, J.H. (Ed.), Power System Coherency and Model Reduction, Power Electronics and Power Systems. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Clownfish Undertake Epic Journeys [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Naval Safety School Relocation: More Credible Cost Analysis Is Needed (No. NSIAD-91-145). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Demenkoff, J.H., 2014. Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, G., 2004. There’s No Politics In the Foxhole. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basri, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Goldenberg and Goldhirsch, 2005; Basri, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenberg and Goldhirsch, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosenbaum et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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