How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G., 2000. HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS: X-ray Satellites Seek Clues to Bursts. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290, 927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lillard, A., Else-Quest, N., 2006. The early years. Evaluating Montessori education. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 1893–1894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, R., Vannice, K.S., Vosshall, L.B., 2007. An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature 450, 289–293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wei, C., Pang, H., Zhang, B., Lu, Q., Liang, S., Gao, F., 2013. Two-dimensional β-MnO₂ nanowire network with enhanced electrochemical capacitance. Scientific reports 3, 2193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goshtasby, A.A., 2017. Theory and Applications of Image Registration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yuen, B., Yeh, A.G.O. (Eds.), 2011. High-Rise Living in Asian Cities. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Lanchon, H., 2011. Torsion Elastoplastique D’Arbres Cylindriques Problemes Ouverts. In: Capriz, G., Stampacchia, G. (Eds.), New Variational Techniques in Mathematical Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 121–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Why Artificial Turf May Truly Be Bad For Kids [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Followup Review of the National Science Foundation’s Conflict of Interest Resolution System for Short-Term Employees (No. RCED-84-35). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pantallion, A.S., 2015. A parallel comparison of views regarding student preparation for introductory college chemistry (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. The Winners Shift Gears: What Now? New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling, 2000; Lillard and Else-Quest, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lillard and Else-Quest, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wei et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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