How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heuser, J., 2003. Retrospective. “My little spontaneous blips.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, 1248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luoto, T.P., Nevalainen, L., 2013. Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features. Scientific reports 3, 2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Postma, E., Griffith, S.C., Brooks, R., 2006. Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature 444, E16; discussion E16-7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Trombetta, E.S., Ebersold, M., Garrett, W., Pypaert, M., Mellman, I., 2003. Activation of lysosomal function during dendritic cell maturation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 1400–1403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higgs, P.G., Attwood, T.K., 2004. Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA USA.
An edited book
Müller, A.H.E., Borisov, O. (Eds.), 2011. Self Organized Nanostructures of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers I, Advances in Polymer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Du, Y., Wang, X., Yao, J., 2012. Probability Based Timed Compatibility of Web Service Composition. In: Wang, Y., Li, T. (Eds.), Practical Applications of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011), Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Tropical Cyclones Will Become Less Common But Far More Intense Thanks To Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Space Transportation: Challenges Facing NASA’s Space Launch Initiative (No. GAO-02-1020). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, J.C., 2012. The fluid evolution of the Mount Mica and Irish Pit pegmatites, Maine: Evidence from stable isotopes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. Two Precincts, Two Worlds; East Flatbush: Stolen Cars, Murder in a Maroon Jeep. New York Times 141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heuser, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Heuser, 2003; Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Trombetta et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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