How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korb, J., 2014. Engineering. Robots acting locally and building globally. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343, 742–743.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin, V., Claussen, M., 2008. Comment on “Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322, 1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chait, R., Craney, A., Kishony, R., 2007. Antibiotic interactions that select against resistance. Nature 446, 668–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ayoub, N., Jeyasekharan, A.D., Bernal, J.A., Venkitaraman, A.R., 2008. HP1-beta mobilization promotes chromatin changes that initiate the DNA damage response. Nature 453, 682–686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tikhomirov, V.V., 2016. Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Madani, K., Dourado, A., Rosa, A., Filipe, J. (Eds.), 2013. Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2011, Paris, France, October 24-26, 2011, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Manfrè, L., 2015. CT-/X-Ray-Guided Technique in Posterior Lumbar Spine Fusion. In: Manfrè, L. (Ed.), Spinal Instability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Ancient Arctic DNA Suggests That Dogs And Wolves Split 40,000 Years Ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Women in STEM Research: Better Data and Information Sharing Could Improve Oversight of Federal Grant-making and Title IX Compliance (No. GAO-16-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weisblatt, B.H., 2010. The numinous on Russian soil: A depth psychological interpretation of religious experience in “The Brothers Karamazov” (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Extraterrestrial Fun, Until Someone Gets Hurt. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korb, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brovkin and Claussen, 2008; Korb, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brovkin and Claussen, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ayoub et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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