How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J., 2015. Funding. NIH program fails to launch blacks in biotech. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, 896.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phipps, R.J., Gaunt, M.J., 2009. A meta-selective copper-catalyzed C-H bond arylation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323, 1593–1597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gambetta, M.C., Oktaba, K., Müller, J., 2009. Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koga, K., Gao, G.T., Tanaka, H., Zeng, X.C., 2001. Formation of ordered ice nanotubes inside carbon nanotubes. Nature 412, 802–805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mamishev, A., Williams, S., 2010. Technical Writing for Teams. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hanachi, C., Bénaben, F., Charoy, F. (Eds.), 2014. Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries: First International Conference, ISCRAM-med 2014, Toulouse, France, October 15-17, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, C.-F., Lee, J., Chang, J.-R., Tai, T., 2016. Probability Concepts and Their Analysis. In: Lee, J., Chang, J.-R., Tai, T. (Eds.), Essentials of Excel, Excel VBA, SAS and Minitab for Statistical and Financial Analyses. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 119–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Treasure Trove Of Fossilized Dinosaur Eggs Discovered By Road Workers In China [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Information Technology: OMB Can More Effectively Use Its Investment Reviews (No. GAO-05-571T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toosi, F., 2017. Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K., 2017. Trying to Find a Sneaker Named For a W.N.B.A. Star? Keep Looking. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Phipps and Gaunt, 2009; Mervis, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phipps and Gaunt, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Koga et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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