How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klaas, S.J., 2013. Perspective: Avoiding injury. Nature 503, S18.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sur, M., Rubenstein, J.L.R., 2005. Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310, 805–810.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, L., Lu, C., Tieu, K., 2014. Atomistic simulation of tensile deformation behavior of ∑5 tilt grain boundaries in copper bicrystal. Scientific reports 4, 5919.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fike, D.A., Grotzinger, J.P., Pratt, L.M., Summons, R.E., 2006. Oxidation of the Ediacaran ocean. Nature 444, 744–747.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner, J., 2005. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (Eds.), 2005. Intelligent Virtual Agents: 5th International Working Conference, IVA 2005, Kos, Greece, September 12-14, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bowers, C., Cannon-Bowers, J., Hussain, T., 2009. Considering User Knowledge in the Evaluation of Training System Usability. In: Kurosu, M. (Ed.), Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Ebola Vaccine Found To Be 100 Percent Effective In Trial [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/ebola-vaccine-found-to-be-100-percent-effective-in-trial/ (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. DOT Headquarters: Unclear Whether Union Station Site Is Best Location (No. GGD-92-126). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diddi, V., 2017. Digitally Controlled Microwave Power Amplifier Design Techniques for Wireless Communications (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2014. Crack Cocaine Limbo. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klaas, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sur and Rubenstein, 2005; Klaas, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sur and Rubenstein, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Fike et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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