How to format your references using the Quaternary International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi, P., 2002. Unique chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in spermatogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 2176–2178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flint, J., Munafò, M., 2014. Schizophrenia: genesis of a complex disease. Nature 511, 412–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asbury, C.L., Fehr, A.N., Block, S.M., 2003. Kinesin moves by an asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 2130–2134.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuura, K., Vargo, E.L., Kawatsu, K., Labadie, P.E., Nakano, H., Yashiro, T., Tsuji, K., 2009. Queen succession through asexual reproduction in termites. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323, 1687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Danson, E., 2016. Drawing the Line. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Erin, L.M., S, W.M.M. (Eds.), 2015. Fibromyalgia: Clinical Guidelines and Treatments. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wheeler, D.S., Zingarelli, B., Wong, H.R., 2006. The Role of Extracellular Heat Shock Proteins in Cellular Inflammation and Injury. In: Vincent, J.-L. (Ed.), Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary International.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Precursor To Life Molecules May Have Been Formed By Starlight [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Teacher Preparation Programs: Education Should Ensure States Identify Low-Performing Programs and Improve Information-Sharing (No. GAO-15-598). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haire, K.K., 2015. Elucidation of the Role of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Drug-Induced Toxicity (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, S., 2014. Efrem Zimbalist Jr., Actor of Authority, Dies at 95. New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassone-Corsi, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sassone-Corsi, 2002; Flint and Munafò, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flint and Munafò, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuura et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary International
AbbreviationQuat. Int.
ISSN (print)1040-6182
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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