How to format your references using the Galaxies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Galaxies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michel-Kerjan, E. Effective Risk Response Needs a Prepared Mindset. Nature 2015, 517, 413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, S.H.; Shirey, S.B. Continental Mantle Signature of Bushveld Magmas and Coeval Diamonds. Nature 2008, 453, 910–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo, H.I.; Barsoum, M.W.; El-Raghy, T. Ti3SiC2 Has Negligible Thermopower. Nature 2000, 407, 581–582.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boyd, M.M.; Zelevinsky, T.; Ludlow, A.D.; Foreman, S.M.; Blatt, S.; Ido, T.; Ye, J. Optical Atomic Coherence at the 1-Second Time Scale. Science 2006, 314, 1430–1433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G. Wastewater Microbiology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470901243.
An edited book
Reijnders, L. Biofuels for Road Transport: A Seed to Wheel Perspective; Huijbregts, M., Ed.; Green Energy and Technology; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848821378.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugawara, D.; Takahashi, T. Numerical Simulation of Coastal Sediment Transport by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Tsunami. In Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned: Environmental and Societal Significance; Kontar, Y.A., Santiago-Fandiño, V., Takahashi, T., Eds.; Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 99–112 ISBN 9789400772687.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Galaxies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientist Proposes That Black Holes Are Harmless Holograms Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Education: Challenges in Promoting Access and Excellence in Education; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrock, G. Intergenerational Ontology & Leadership: Uniting the Multigenerational Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Quiet Campaigns Begin For Presidency of I.O.C. New York Times 2013, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGalaxies
ISSN (online)2075-4434

Other styles