How to format your references using the Galaxies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Galaxies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romanowicz, B. Geophysics. The Thickness of Tectonic Plates. Science 2009, 324, 474–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudrimont, A.; Becskei, A. Gene Regulation: Expression Feels Two Pulses. Nature 2015, 527, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fay, J.C.; Wyckoff, G.J.; Wu, C.-I. Testing the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution with Genomic Data from Drosophila. Nature 2002, 415, 1024–1026.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, H.; Guo, J.; Li, P.; Fan, T.; Zhang, D.; Ye, J. Leaf-Architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates towards CO₂ Photoreduction into Hydrocarbon Fuels. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant, G. Ecosystem Services Come to Town; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118387924.
An edited book
Action-Based Quality Management: Strategy and Tools for Continuous Improvement; Peris-Ortiz, M., Álvarez-García, J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319064529.
A chapter in an edited book
Moore, P.B. How Small Is Small? In The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality; Luisi, P.L., Stano, P., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; pp. 65–71 ISBN 9789048199433.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Galaxies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Mangy Marsupials: Wombats Are Catching A Deadly Disease, And We Urgently Need A Plan To Help Them Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: The Proposed Performance Rights Act Would Result in Additional Costs for Broadcast Radio Stations and Additional Revenue for Record Companies, Musicians, and Performers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y. Extreme Value Estimators: Their Long Memory Feature and Forecasting Performances in the U.S. Stock Indexes. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hauser, C. Secret Service Agent Under Investigation. New York Times 2017, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGalaxies
ISSN (online)2075-4434

Other styles