How to format your references using the Galaxies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Galaxies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. Structural Genomics--from Cottage Industry to Industrial Revolution. Nature 2000, 408, 273–274.
A journal article with 2 authors
Konstantinides, N.; Averof, M. A Common Cellular Basis for Muscle Regeneration in Arthropods and Vertebrates. Science 2014, 343, 788–791.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miura, K.; Nasu, H.; Yamamoto, S. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy for Characterization of Neoplastic and Inflammatory Lesions of Lymph Nodes. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, C.; Hong, B.; Choi, J.M.; Kim, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Ishimi, Y.; Enomoto, T.; Tada, S.; Kim, Y.; Cho, Y. Structural Basis for Inhibition of the Replication Licensing Factor Cdt1 by Geminin. Nature 2004, 430, 913–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft MAK- Und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2014; ISBN 9783527682010.
An edited book
Djukić, D. The IMO Compendium: A Collection of Problems Suggested for The International Mathematical Olympiads: 1959-2009 Second Edition; Janković, V., Matić, I., Petrović, N., Eds.; Problem Books in Mathematics; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; ISBN 9781441998538.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazarika, M.; Dixit, U.S. A Fuzzy Set Based Setup Planning Methodology. In Setup Planning for Machining; Dixit, U.S., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 67–89 ISBN 9783319133195.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Galaxies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Oral Contraceptive Pill Could Be Altering The Physical Structure Of Your Brain Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office General Aviation Security: Increased Federal Oversight Is Needed, but Continued Partnership with the Private Sector Is Critical to Long-Term Success; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sakalli Gumus, S. Preparing Teachers for Partnering with Families: Examining the Impact of a Specifically Designed Curriculum on Professionals. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. A Dispute Over a Composer’s Burial Place, and His Legacy. New York Times 2015, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGalaxies
ISSN (online)2075-4434

Other styles