How to format your references using the Galaxies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Galaxies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holness, M. Geochemistry. How melted rock migrates. Science 2006, 314, 934–935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehta, R.S.; Wainwright, P.C. Raptorial jaws in the throat help moray eels swallow large prey. Nature 2007, 449, 79–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanner, C.; Manca, C.; Leutwyler, S. Probing the threshold to H atom transfer along a hydrogen-bonded ammonia wire. Science 2003, 302, 1736–1739.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frank, M.J.; Samanta, J.; Moustafa, A.A.; Sherman, S.J. Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism. Science 2007, 318, 1309–1312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Castle, D.; Cline, C.; Daar, A.S.; Tsamis, C.; Singer, P.A. Science, Society, and the Supermarket; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470055502.
An edited book
European Instructional Lectures: Volume 12, 2012, 13th EFORT Congress, Berlin, Germany; Bentley, G., Ed.; European Instructional Lectures; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 12; ISBN 9783642272929.
A chapter in an edited book
Consoli, S.; Gangemi, A.; Nuzzolese, A.G.; Peroni, S.; Reforgiato Recupero, D.; Spampinato, D. Setting the Course of Emergency Vehicle Routing Using Geolinked Open Data for the Municipality of Catania. In The Semantic Web: ESWC 2014 Satellite Events: ESWC 2014 Satellite Events, Anissaras, Crete, Greece, May 25-29, 2014, Revised Selected Papers; Presutti, V., Blomqvist, E., Troncy, R., Sack, H., Papadakis, I., Tordai, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 42–53 ISBN 9783319119540.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Galaxies.

Blog post
Fang, J. Can You Guess How Much a Stegosaurus Weighs? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Small Business Innovation Research: Data Rights Protections; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narayanan, B.C. Structure function diversity within the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily as revealed by the enzymes oxaloacetate decarboxylase and 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Tough Architect of the Mets. New York Times 2017, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGalaxies
ISSN (online)2075-4434

Other styles