How to format your references using the Galaxies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Galaxies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franz, M. Physics. In Praise of Exact Quantization. Science 2010, 329, 639–640.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacBean, N.; Peylin, P. Biogeochemistry: Agriculture and the Global Carbon Cycle. Nature 2014, 515, 351–352.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moritz, C.T.; Perlmutter, S.I.; Fetz, E.E. Direct Control of Paralysed Muscles by Cortical Neurons. Nature 2008, 456, 639–642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zachos, J.C.; Shackleton, N.J.; Revenaugh, J.S.; Pälike, H.; Flower, B.P. Climate Response to Orbital Forcing across the Oligocene-Miocene Boundary. Science 2001, 292, 274–278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavé, A. Modeling Living Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118569634.
An edited book
General Surgery; Bland, K.I., Büchler, M.W., Csendes, A., Sarr, M.G., Garden, O.J., Wong, J., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781846288326.
A chapter in an edited book
Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.; van Kreveld, M.; Rote, G.; Tel, G. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs. In Fun with Algorithms: 4th International Conference, FUN 2007, Castiglioncello, Italy, June 3-5, 2007. Proceedings; Crescenzi, P., Prencipe, G., Pucci, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 16–29 ISBN 9783540729136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Galaxies.

Blog post
Taub, B. World’s Rarest Great Ape Threatened By Nigerian Highway Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Issues Concerning the National Materials Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, Public Law 96-479; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, B. Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S.; Apuzzo, M.; Haberman, M. Mueller Is Said to Seek White House Interviews in Russia Inquiry. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGalaxies
ISSN (online)2075-4434

Other styles