How to format your references using the Journal of Emergency Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Emergency Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nutt D. Help luck along to find psychiatric medicines. Nature. 2014;515(7526):165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dominguez-Villar M, Hafler DA. Immunology. An innate role for IL-17. Science. 2011;332(6025):47-48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cubrović M, Zaanen J, Schalm K. String theory, quantum phase transitions, and the emergent Fermi liquid. Science. 2009;325(5939):439-444.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kettle CJ, Ghazoul J, Ashton PS, et al. Mass fruiting in Borneo: a missed opportunity. Science. 2010;330(6004):584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mowlaee P, Kulmer J, Stahl J, Mayer F. Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Zhang Y, ed. Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management: Volume 2. Vol 142. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Emady H, Hapgood K, Smith R. Granulation and Tabletting. In: Merkus HG, Meesters GMH, eds. Production, Handling and Characterization of Particulate Materials. Particle Technology Series. Springer International Publishing; 2016:107-136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Emergency Nursing.

Blog post
Taub B. How Card Players’ Eyes Give Their Hand Away. IFLScience. Published June 22, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Resolve Safety Questions on Saccharin. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fengler K. Everyday Aesthetics and the Environmental Significance of Everyday Aesthetics: A High School Art Unit of Instruction Promoting Positive Attitudinal Changes towards the Environment. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Young Immigrant Seizes a Culinary Opportunity. New York Times. December 7, 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Emergency Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Emerg. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0099-1767

Other styles