How to format your references using the Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitale, J.N. Asteroid Hazard Mitigation Using the Yarkovsky Effect. Science 2002, 296, 77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Audet, P.; Bürgmann, R. Possible Control of Subduction Zone Slow-Earthquake Periodicity by Silica Enrichment. Nature 2014, 510, 389–392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hudson, J.J.; Taylor, W.D.; Schindler, D.W. Phosphate Concentrations in Lakes. Nature 2000, 406, 54–56.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sack, A.T.; Camprodon, J.A.; Pascual-Leone, A.; Goebel, R. The Dynamics of Interhemispheric Compensatory Processes in Mental Imagery. Science 2005, 308, 702–704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Chevalier, F.; Lesselier, D.; Staraj, R. Non-Standard Antennas; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118601808.
An edited book
Markon, S. Control of Traffic Systems in Buildings; Kise, H., Kita, H., Bartz-Beielstein, T., Eds.; Advances in Industrial Control; Springer: London, 2006; ISBN 9781846284489.
A chapter in an edited book
Yadav, A.K.; Vashisth, S.; Singh, H.; Singh, K. Optical Cryptography and Watermarking Using Some Fractional Canonical Transforms, and Structured Masks. In Advances in Optical Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the First International Conference, IEM OPTRONIX 2014; Lakshminarayanan, V., Bhattacharya, I., Eds.; Springer Proceedings in Physics; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; pp. 25–36 ISBN 9788132223665.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Life.

Blog post
Davis, J. Nepal Is At Risk From Another Big Earthquake Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Long-Term Planning for National Science Policy; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman, F. Terra Forming with You and Me. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Matz Heads to the D.L. With a Tight Shoulder. New York Times 2016, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLife
AbbreviationLife (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-1729
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Space and Planetary Science

Other styles