How to format your references using the Leukemia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leukemia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Torres-Reveron A. Hispanic people start leaping over barriers to better jobs. Nature 2009; 460: 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koren I, Feingold G. Adaptive behavior of marine cellular clouds. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrand Y, Crump MP, Davis AP. A synthetic lectin analog for biomimetic disaccharide recognition. Science 2007; 318: 619–622.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alarico S, Costa M, Sousa MS, Maranha A, Lourenço EC, Faria TQ et al. Mycobacterium hassiacum recovers from nitrogen starvation with up-regulation of a novel glucosylglycerate hydrolase and depletion of the accumulated glucosylglycerate. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6766.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lenk R, Lenk C. Practical Lighting Design With LEDs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Radev D (ed.). Puzzles in Logic, Languages and Computation: The Green Book. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
de Vries MJ, Meijers AWM. Beliefs, Acceptances and Technological Knowledge. In: Vries MJ de, Hansson SO, Meijers AWM (eds). Norms in Technology. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013, pp 55–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leukemia.

Blog post
Evans K. Tiny Robot Drones Developed To Help Declining Bees Pollinate Plants. IFLScience. 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Aid Information and Private Tuition-Guarantee Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan JD. Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Backs Police Officers In Chase That Hurt Driver. New York Times. 2007; : A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeukemia
ISSN (print)0887-6924
ISSN (online)1476-5551
ScopeCancer Research
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles