How to format your references using the Leukemia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leukemia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewin RA. Why rename things? Nature 2001; 410: 637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hafernik J, Saul-Gershenz L. Beetle larvae cooperate to mimic bees. Nature 2000; 405: 35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blum R, Kafitz KW, Konnerth A. Neurotrophin-evoked depolarization requires the sodium channel Na(V)1.9. Nature 2002; 419: 687–693.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bryant Z, Stone MD, Gore J, Smith SB, Cozzarelli NR, Bustamante C. Structural transitions and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA. Nature 2003; 424: 338–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberger G, Wiberg P. Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. American Geophysical Union: Washington D. C., 2005.
An edited book
Falmagne J-C. On Meaningful Scientific Laws. 1st ed. 2015. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nagatsuka T, Ichimura K, Ito Y, Yamahara M, Toyooka T. Filters and Films for Liquid Crystal Devices. In: Koide N (ed). The Liquid Crystal Display Story: 50 Years of Liquid Crystal R&D that lead The Way to the Future. Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2014, pp 81–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leukemia.

Blog post
Davis J. St John’s Wort Found To Reduce The Effectiveness Of Emergency Contraception. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Visibility and Leadership: The Changing Federal Role in Education. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ku Y. Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James S. Recalling the Plague Years. New York Times. 2017; : F28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLeukemia
ISSN (print)0887-6924
ISSN (online)1476-5551
ScopeCancer Research
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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