How to format your references using the Informatics in Medicine Unlocked citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Informatics in Medicine Unlocked. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil V V. Jumbo. Nature 2000;406:239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gubin MM, Schreiber RD. CANCER. The odds of immunotherapy success. Science 2015;350:158–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fahrner KA, Ryu WS, Berg HC. Biomechanics: bacterial flagellar switching under load. Nature 2003;423:938.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blaauwgeers R, Eltsov VB, Krusius M, Ruohio JJ, Schanen R, Volovik GE. Double-quantum vortex in superfluid 3He-A. Nature 2000;404:471–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Filla JJ, Brown HE. Prospect Research for Fundraisers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
McMillan DB, editor. Fish Histology: Female Reproductive Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kifer M, Smolka SA. Memory: Virtual Memory Management. In: Smolka SA, editor. Introduction to Operating System Design and Implementation: The OSP 2 Approach, London: Springer; 2007, p. 75–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Informatics in Medicine Unlocked.

Blog post
Fang J. Antifreeze from Ticks Offer Frostbite Protection for Mice. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Community-Based Correctional Programs Can Do More To Help Offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shelby KR. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Eligon J. Minneapolis Grapples With a Community Being Left Behind. New York Times 2016:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformatics in Medicine Unlocked
AbbreviationInform. Med. Unlocked
ISSN (print)2352-9148

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