How to format your references using the Letters in Applied Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Applied Microbiology (LAM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sánchez-Lavega, A. (2005) How long is the day on Saturn? Science. 307, 1223–1224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forneris, F. and Mattevi, A. (2008) Enzymes without borders: mobilizing substrates, delivering products. Science. 321, 213–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, H., Nebel, C.E. and Shikata, S. (2009) Isotopic homojunction band engineering from diamond. Science. 324, 1425–1428.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hirosumi, J., Tuncman, G., Chang, L., Görgün, C.Z., Uysal, K.T., Maeda, K., Karin, M. and Hotamisligil, G.S. (2002) A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance. Nature. 420, 333–336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hines, M. (2015) Marketing implant dentistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bassiliades, N., Ivanovic, M., Kon-Popovska, M., Manolopoulos, Y., Palpanas, T., Trajcevski, G. and Vakali, A. (Eds.) (2015) New Trends in Database and Information Systems II: Selected papers of the 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events, ADBIS 2014 Ohrid, Macedonia, September 7-10, 2014 Proceedings II. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mula, J. and Campuzano, F. (2011) System Dynamics: Main Concepts. In Supply Chain Simulation: A System Dynamics Approach for Improving Performance ed. Mula, J. pp.37–49. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Applied Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Even The Pope Gets It – Carbon Markets Won’t Fix The Climate [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Aircraft Maintenance: Additional FAA Oversight Needed of Aging Aircraft Repairs (Vol. II) ( No. RCED-91-91B). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, M. (2011) How Charter School Teachers Act on Perceived Autonomy: A Qualitative Study of Curricular Decisions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. and de la MERCED, M.J. (2010) A.I.G. Chairman Resigns, Citing Clash With Chief. New York Times. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sánchez-Lavega, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Sánchez-Lavega, 2005; Forneris & Mattevi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forneris & Mattevi, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Watanabe, Nebel & Shikata, 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hirosumi et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Applied Microbiology
ISSN (print)0266-8254
ISSN (online)1472-765X

Other styles