How to format your references using the Letters in Applied Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Applied Microbiology (LAM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowie, J.U. (2013) Structural biology. Membrane protein twists and turns. Science. 339, 398–399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomkins, J.L. and Brown, G.S. (2004) Population density drives the local evolution of a threshold dimorphism. Nature. 431, 1099–1103.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tagkopoulos, I., Liu, Y.-C. and Tavazoie, S. (2008) Predictive behavior within microbial genetic networks. Science. 320, 1313–1317.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Omta, A.W., Kropman, M.F., Woutersen, S. and Bakker, H.J. (2003) Negligible effect of ions on the hydrogen-bond structure in liquid water. Science. 301, 347–349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett, K. (2016) The Experience of History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sovacool, B.K. (2016) The Political Economy of Climate Change Adaptation. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
del Rio Astorga, D., Dolz, M.F., Sanchez, L.M., Blas, J.G. and García, J.D. (2016) A C++ Generic Parallel Pattern Interface for Stream Processing. In Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 16th International Conference, ICA3PP 2016, Granada, Spain, December 14-16, 2016, Proceedings, , Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed. Carretero, J., Garcia-Blas, J., Ko, R.K.L., Mueller, P. and Nakano, K. pp.74–87. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Applied Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016) Comets’ Nuclei Break Up And Make Up Over Their Life Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) ADP Procurements: Food and Drug Administration Circumvented Procurement Regulations ( No. IMTEC-87-48). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bain Butler, D. (2010) How L2 legal writers use strategies for scholarly writing: A mixed methods study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2016) Lew Visits Puerto Rico and Urges Federal Help. New York Times. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowie, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Tomkins & Brown, 2004; Bowie, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomkins & Brown, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tagkopoulos, Liu & Tavazoie, 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Omta et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Applied Microbiology
ISSN (print)0266-8254
ISSN (online)1472-765X

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