How to format your references using the Letters in Applied Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Applied Microbiology (LAM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldiss, B.W. (2001) Desperately seeking aliens. Nature. 409, 1080–1082.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willis, K.J. and Whittaker, R.J. (2002) Ecology. Species diversity--scale matters. Science. 295, 1245–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moritz, C.T., Perlmutter, S.I. and Fetz, E.E. (2008) Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons. Nature. 456, 639–642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kawai, H., Kanegae, T., Christensen, S., Kiyosue, T., Sato, Y., Imaizumi, T., Kadota, A. and Wada, M. (2003) Responses of ferns to red light are mediated by an unconventional photoreceptor. Nature. 421, 287–290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biswas, S., Ray, P. and Chakrabarti, B.K. (2015) Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Dempe, S. (2015) Bilevel Programming Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications to Energy Networks. Energy Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, M.Q., Qiao, Y., Lu, E.D. and Tan, Y. (2015) Guidance for Application Materials/Booklets (Chemical). In Approaching China’s Pharmaceutical Market: A Fundamental Guide to Clinical Drug Development ed. Lu, M.Q. pp.329–434. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Applied Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Marmot Adorably Ruins Time Lapse of Glacier National Park [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Federal-Aid Highways: Federal Highway Administration Could Further Mitigate Locally Administered Project Risks ( No. GAO-14-113). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindeboom, T.N. (2014) A new home for transitioning youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2012) At Airline, A Pensions Compromise. New York Times. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aldiss, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Aldiss, 2001; Willis & Whittaker, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willis & Whittaker, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Moritz, Perlmutter & Fetz, 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kawai et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Applied Microbiology
ISSN (print)0266-8254
ISSN (online)1472-765X

Other styles