How to format your references using the Computer Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Retallack, G. J. (2013). Ediacaran life on land. Nature, 493(7430), 89–92.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutherland, W. J., & Burgman, M. (2015). Policy advice: Use experts wisely. Nature, 526(7573), 317–318.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, J. D., Gong, L. I., & Baltimore, D. (2010). Permissive secondary mutations enable the evolution of influenza oseltamivir resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5983), 1272–1275.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsang, K. H., Lai, S. K., Li, Q., Yung, W. H., Liu, H., Mak, P. H. S., Ng, C. C. P., McAlonan, G., Chan, Y. S., & Chan, S. Y. (2014). The nucleosome assembly protein TSPYL2 regulates the expression of NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B. Scientific Reports, 4, 3654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandrasekaran, S. (2016). Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Beckert, B., & Marché, C. (Eds.). (2011). Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software: International Conference, FoVeOOS 2010, Paris, France, June 28-30, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6528). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gürses, A., Açıkyıldız, M., Güneş, K., & Gürses, M. S. (2016). Dyeing and Dyeing Technology. In M. Açıkyıldız, K. Güneş, & M. S. Gürses (Eds.), Dyes and Pigments (pp. 47–67). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 27). Spring Just Arrived In America Three Weeks Early. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Highway Safety: Further Opportunities Exist to Improve Data on Crashes Involving Commercial Motor Vehicles (GAO-06-102). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao, S. (2012). Effects of adsorbates on the electronic properties of graphene [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Williams, T. C. (2017, March 28). Radical Ambition. New York Times, MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Retallack, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Retallack, 2013; Sutherland & Burgman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sutherland & Burgman, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bloom et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science Education
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0899-3408
ISSN (online)1744-5175
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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