How to format your references using the Computer Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion, R. (2000). AAS HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS DIVISION: X-rays Hit the Spot for Astrophysicists. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1884–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lounis, B., & Moerner, W. E. (2000). Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature, 407(6803), 491–493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blaha, G., Stanley, R. E., & Steitz, T. A. (2009). Formation of the first peptide bond: the structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 966–970.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Herry, C., Ciocchi, S., Senn, V., Demmou, L., Müller, C., & Lüthi, A. (2008). Switching on and off fear by distinct neuronal circuits. Nature, 454(7204), 600–606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, D. M. (2016). Judges. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Wiak, S., & Napieralska-Juszczak, E. (Eds.). (2011). Computational Methods for the Innovative Design of Electrical Devices (Vol. 327). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Migon, M. P. (2006). Connection of Microcosm with Macrocosm in Max Scheler’s Philosophy: Man, Logos and Ethos. In A.-T. Tymieniecka (Ed.), Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm (pp. 67–95). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science Education.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, December 6). 7 Things In Your Daily Life That You Didn’t Know Were Based On NASA Innovations. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Comments on S. 881 and GAO Report on Small-Business Innovation Initiatives (No. 115776). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forlizzi, M. L. (2008). Congruency of supervisor and counselor perceptions of actual and preferred counselor work behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N. (2011, December 25). New Directors Flesh Out Black America, All of It. New York Times, p. AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irion, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Irion, 2000; Lounis & Moerner, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lounis & Moerner, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Blaha, Stanley, & Steitz, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Herry et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science Education
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0899-3408
ISSN (online)1744-5175
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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