How to format your references using the Computer Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prewitt, K. (2004). Sociology. What if we give a census and no one comes? Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1452–1453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab, M. E., & Buchli, A. D. (2012). Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature, 483(7389), 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansel, D. E., Eipper, B. A., & Ronnett, G. V. (2001). Neuropeptide Y functions as a neuroproliferative factor. Nature, 410(6831), 940–944.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dahan, M., Lévi, S., Luccardini, C., Rostaing, P., Riveau, B., & Triller, A. (2003). Diffusion dynamics of glycine receptors revealed by single-quantum dot tracking. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 442–445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, K. H., & Barnes, R. (2010). VoIP Emergency Calling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dietel, M., Wittekind, C., Bussolati, G., & Winterfeld, M. von (Eds.). (2015). Pre-Analytics of Pathological Specimens in Oncology (Vol. 199). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Atef, M., & Zimmermann, H. (2016). Discrete Photodiodes. In H. Zimmermann (Ed.), Optoelectronic Circuits in Nanometer CMOS Technology (pp. 59–65). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 7). Alcohol Guidelines Ignore How People Drink – That’s Why They’re Not Heeded. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort (GGD-99-25). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borisova-Kidder, A. (2006). Meta-Analytical Estimates of Values of Environmental Services Enhanced by Government Agricultural Conservation Programs [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 13). Mets’ Starter Fails to Last 2 Innings, and He May Not Get to Go Any Longer. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prewitt, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Prewitt, 2004; Schwab & Buchli, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwab & Buchli, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hansel et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dahan et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science Education
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0899-3408
ISSN (online)1744-5175
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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