How to format your references using the Computer Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson, P. J. (2009). Journal club. A chemist highlights promising organometallic drugs. Nature, 458(7237), 389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conner, S. D., & Schmid, S. L. (2003). Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature, 422(6927), 37–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carbone, F., Kwon, O.-H., & Zewail, A. H. (2009). Dynamics of chemical bonding mapped by energy-resolved 4D electron microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 181–184.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, W., Yin, L., Gonzalez-Malerva, L., Wang, S., Yu, X., Eaton, S., Zhang, S., Chen, H.-Y., LaBaer, J., & Tao, N. (2014). In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance. Scientific Reports, 4, 6609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, A. (2010). Political Atlas of the Modern World. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Cimino, G., & Gavagnin, M. (Eds.). (2006). Molluscs: From Chemo-ecological Study to Biotechnological Application (Vol. 43). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jyoti, A., Tomar, R. S., & Shanker, R. (2016). Nanosensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria. In S. Ranjan, N. Dasgupta, & E. Lichtfouse (Eds.), Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 1 (pp. 129–150). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 22). Was Japan’s 6.9M Earthquake Linked To The 2011 Megathrust Disaster? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Organizational Culture: Techniques Companies Use to Perpetuate or Change Beliefs and Values (NSIAD-92-105). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosie, S. A. (2012). Examining stakeholder perceptions of educational success in the Malagasy public education system [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, August 28). Taylor Swift’s Single Breaks Spotify Record. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dyson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conner & Schmid, 2003; Dyson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conner & Schmid, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Carbone et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science Education
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0899-3408
ISSN (online)1744-5175
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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