How to format your references using the Computer Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ffrench-Constant, R. H. (2014). Genomics: Of monarchs and migration. Nature, 514(7522), 314–315.
A journal article with 2 authors
Di Noia, J., & Neuberger, M. S. (2002). Altering the pathway of immunoglobulin hypermutation by inhibiting uracil-DNA glycosylase. Nature, 419(6902), 43–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fox, C. G., Chadwick, W. W., Jr, & Embley, R. W. (2001). Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow. Nature, 412(6848), 727–729.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Keppler, H., Dubrovinsky, L. S., Narygina, O., & Kantor, I. (2008). Optical absorption and radiative thermal conductivity of silicate perovskite to 125 gigapascals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5907), 1529–1532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacaze, P. C., & Lacroix, J.-C. (2014). Non-Volatile Memories. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fischer, X., Daidie, A., Eynard, B., & Paredes, M. (Eds.). (2016). Research in Interactive Design (Vol. 4): Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Erovic, B. M., & Lercher, P. (2015). Preoperative Considerations. In P. Lercher (Ed.), Manual of Head and Neck Reconstruction Using Regional and Free Flaps (pp. 15–16). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 29). Universal Snake Venom Antidote On The Horizon. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Customs Has Established Effective Year 2000 Program Controls (AIMD-99-37). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarthy, A. C. (2012). Tangle towns tie-breaker: A multidimensional knapsack study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, April 26). Justices Reject Immunity Below State Level. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ffrench-Constant, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Di Noia & Neuberger, 2002; Ffrench-Constant, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Di Noia & Neuberger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Fox et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Keppler et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Science Education
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0899-3408
ISSN (online)1744-5175
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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