How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn E (2015) Screening: Don’t look now. Nature 527:S118-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Naya Y, Suzuki WA (2011) Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe. Science 333:773–776
A journal article with 3 authors
Baxt LA, Garza-Mayers AC, Goldberg MB (2013) Bacterial subversion of host innate immune pathways. Science 340:697–701
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Qu D, Zheng M, Zhang L, et al (2014) Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots. Sci Rep 4:5294

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn GJ, Doganaksoy N (2011) A Career in Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Prentiss A, Kuijt I, Chatters JC (2009) Macroevolution in Human Prehistory: Evolutionary Theory and Processual Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Ricciardi F (2008) The Tacking Knowledge Strategy Claudio Ciborra, Konrad Lorenz and the Ecology of Information Systems. In: Marco MD, Casalino N (eds) Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies: The Italian Association for Information Systems. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp 23–29

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Hubble Space Telescope’s Chief Scientist On What It Took To Get The Project Off The Ground. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Asian Aeronautics: Technology Acquisition Drives Industry Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selis AH (2010) Holding the center: How one Jewish day school negotiates differences in a pluralistic community. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2008) For Sabbath on Saturdays, Fewer Open Shops. New York Times LI13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Education
AbbreviationJ. Cancer Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-8195
ISSN (online)1543-0154
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles