How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Nakano, Survey of the Japanese coast reveals abundant placozoan populations in the Northern Pacific Ocean, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5356.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Tomita, K. Kami, Cancer. Systems biology, metabolomics, and cancer metabolism, Science. 336 (2012) 990–991.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.L. Stewart, K.J. Roux, B. Burke, Blurring the boundary: the nuclear envelope extends its reach, Science. 318 (2007) 1408–1412.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.M. Ferguson, D.A.T. Cummings, S. Cauchemez, C. Fraser, S. Riley, A. Meeyai, S. Iamsirithaworn, D.S. Burke, Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia, Nature. 437 (2005) 209–214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Voigtman, Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2017.
An edited book
A.A. Kokhanovsky, ed., Light Scattering Reviews 9: Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Hong, H. Wang, Branching Structures Within Random Walks and Their Applications, in: I.M. del Puerto, M. González, C. Gutiérrez, R. Martínez, C. Minuesa, M. Molina, M. Mota, A. Ramos (Eds.), Branching Processes and Their Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Insight Into Astrocytic Signalling Within The Brain, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Transit Administration: Progress and Challenges in Implementing and Evaluating the Job Access and Reverse Commute Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.W. Wright, The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kasich, Welfare Is Still Broken, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Inform.
ISSN (print)1386-5056
ScopeHealth Informatics

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