How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Marchant, Consider all the evidence on alternative therapies, Nature. 526 (2015) 295.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Liemert, A. Kienle, Exact and efficient solution of the radiative transport equation for the semi-infinite medium, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2018.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.J. Depew, T. Lufkin, J.L.R. Rubenstein, Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes, Science. 298 (2002) 381–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Dai, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhan, D. Zhang, N. Wang, L. He, A novel tissue model for angiogenesis: evaluation of inhibitors or promoters in tissue level, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.N. Henriksen, Scale Invariance, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
V. Geroimenko, ed., Augmented Reality Art: From an Emerging Technology to a Novel Creative Medium, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J.-B. Thomas, J.Y. Hardeberg, A. Trémeau, Cross-Media Color Reproduction and Display Characterization, in: C. Fernandez-Maloigne (Ed.), Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 81–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Seeds Of Doubt: Why Consumers Weigh Up GM Produce – And Turn It Down, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Women in STEM Research: Federal Agencies Differ in the Data They Collect on Grant Applicants, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.H. Do, An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Markoff, After a Retirement, Putting to Bed The Times’s First Email Address, New York Times. (2017) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Inform.
ISSN (print)1386-5056
ScopeHealth Informatics

Other styles