How to format your references using the Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Südhof TC. Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease. Nature. 2008 Oct 16;455(7215):903–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roesch MR, Olson CR. Neuronal activity related to reward value and motivation in primate frontal cortex. Science. 2004 Apr 9;304(5668):307–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovalenko MV, Scheele M, Talapin DV. Colloidal nanocrystals with molecular metal chalcogenide surface ligands. Science. 2009 Jun 12;324(5933):1417–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mao H, Yu H, Chen J, Liao X. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang Q. Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Giddings L-A. Bioactive Compounds from Extremophiles: Genomic Studies, Biosynthetic Gene Clusters, and New Dereplication Methods. Newman DJ, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. (SpringerBriefs in Microbiology).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang D, Ang WT. Musculoskeletal Models of Tremor. In: Grimaldi G, Manto M, editors. Mechanisms and Emerging Therapies in Tremor Disorders. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 79–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Nearby Exoplanets Confirmed To Be Earth-Sized [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Systems: Legislative Branch Opportunity for Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: IMTEC-89-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzano D. The benefits of fall intervention programs for older adults: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Offering Fresh Weapons Against Test Anxiety. New York Times. 2008 Jan 20;LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Südhof 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Roesch and Olson 2004; Südhof 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roesch and Olson 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
AbbreviationSpat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-5845
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Infectious Diseases
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles