How to format your references using the Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weaver RL. Geophysics. Information from seismic noise. Science. 2005 Mar 11;307(5715):1568–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crawley MJ, Harral JE. Scale dependence in plant biodiversity. Science. 2001 Feb 2;291(5505):864–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chalasani R, Gupta A, Vasudevan S. Engineering new layered solids from exfoliated inorganics: a periodically alternating hydrotalcite-montmorillonite layered hybrid. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 16;3:3498.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hammarström P, Wiseman RL, Powers ET, Kelly JW. Prevention of transthyretin amyloid disease by changing protein misfolding energetics. Science. 2003 Jan 31;299(5607):713–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young S, Smith J. Helping Children with ADHD. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Berlot G, Pozzato G, editors. Hematologic Problems in the Critically Ill. Milano: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Dukas AG, DeBerardino TM. Surgical Approach to Chronic Medial Injury. In: Rossi R, Margheritini F, editors. Knee Ligament Injuries: Extraarticular Surgical Techniques. Milano: Springer; 2014. p. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Nutrition May Be As Big A Challenge Today As HIV/AIDS Was 15 Years Ago [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Communications: Mobile Subscriber Equipment Testing Issues and Army Improvement Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Jul. Report No.: NSIAD-89-165BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford KB. 500 Year Chenier, Architecture, Cultural Identity, and Land Change “Identification in a Dynamic Place” [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. Edge or Liability? New York Times. 2017 Mar 17;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weaver 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Crawley and Harral 2001; Weaver 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crawley and Harral 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hammarström et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
AbbreviationSpat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-5845
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Infectious Diseases
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles