How to format your references using the Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Taking stock of biotech jobs. Nature. 2002 May 30;417(6888):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benton MJ, Ayala FJ. Dating the tree of life. Science. 2003 Jun 13;300(5626):1698–700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Villar G, Graham AD, Bayley H. A tissue-like printed material. Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):48–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Munschauer M, Nguyen CT, Sirokman K, Hartigan CR, Hogstrom L, Engreitz JM, et al. The NORAD lncRNA assembles a topoisomerase complex critical for genome stability. Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7721):132–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tao F, Zhang L, Hu Y. Resource Service Management in Manufacturing Grid System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
De Silva AM. Grammar-Based Feature Generation for Time-Series Prediction. Leong PHW, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2015. (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez L, Rodriguez RM, Herrera F. Decision Making in Heterogeneous Context: 2-Tuple Linguistic Based Approaches. In: Rodriguez RM, Herrera F, editors. The 2-tuple Linguistic Model: Computing with Words in Decision Making. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 51–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Davis J. Gut Bacteria Could Increase Risk Of Developing Asthma [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cargo Tank Trucks: Improved Incident Data and Regulatory Analysis Would Better Inform Decisions about Safety Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Sep. Report No.: GAO-13-721.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunathilaka D. Compliance with dietary restrictions among African American older adults with chronic kidney disease in a nursing home setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K. Kevin Carr Will Stop Running When He Circles the World. New York Times. 2014 Aug 10;TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Benton and Ayala 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benton and Ayala 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Munschauer et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
AbbreviationSpat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-5845
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Infectious Diseases
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles