How to format your references using the Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernhardt ES. Ecology. Cleaner lakes are dirtier lakes. Science. 2013 Oct 11;342(6155):205–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duffy PE, Fried M. Biomedicine. Turncoat antibodies. Science. 2001 Sep 14;293(5537):2009–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang Y, Kirmizialtin S, Sanchez IC. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 6;4:4011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Imanishi Y, Sato T, Higashi T, Sun W, Okubo S. A network of superconducting gravimeters detects submicrogal coseismic gravity changes. Science. 2004 Oct 15;306(5695):476–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming P, Lee R. Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Hens T. Financial Economics: A Concise Introduction to Classical and Behavioral Finance. Rieger MO, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim SG. Variations in Outcome of Endodontic Surgery. In: Tsesis I, editor. Complications in Endodontic Surgery: Prevention, Identification and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Regrowing Limbs: Fossils Reveal Ancient Secrets Of Salamander Ancestors. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Funding: NASA’s Appropriations and DOD’s Funding Estimates for Space Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Feb. Report No.: NSIAD-87-81FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chakravarty S. Harvesting health: Fertilizer, nutrition and AIDS treatment in Kenya [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Correal A, Schmidt S. Pain and Anxiety Linger in Aftermath of a Blast. New York Times. 2016 Sep 23;A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernhardt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Duffy and Fried 2001; Bernhardt 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Duffy and Fried 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Imanishi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
AbbreviationSpat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-5845
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Infectious Diseases
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles