How to format your references using the Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M. EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Pathogens Lab Chief Stripped of Duties. Science. 2000 Jul 14;289(5477):228b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinberg D, Davidowitz H. Do cockroaches “know” about fluid dynamics? Nature. 2000 Jun 15;405(6788):756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Šubelj L, Fiala D, Bajec M. Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 29;4:6496.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dickinson M, Farman G, Frye M, Bekyarova T, Gore D, Maughan D, et al. Molecular dynamics of cyclically contracting insect flight muscle in vivo. Nature. 2005 Jan 20;433(7023):330–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight JG, Foote R. Ethics in Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Wei R, editor. Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. (Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications).
A chapter in an edited book
Illies C. New Debates in Old Ethical Skins. In: Engelhard M, editor. Synthetic Biology Analysed: Tools for Discussion and Evaluation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 89–125. (Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. The Entire San Andreas Fault Could Rupture During The “Big One” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in Some Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-98-176.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford A. Internationalization Policy at the Genba: Exploring the Implementation of Social Science English-Taught Undergraduate Degree Programs in Three Japanese Universities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Australian Persists in Chase for Elusive Title. New York Times. 2017 Jun 10;SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Rinberg and Davidowitz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rinberg and Davidowitz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dickinson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
AbbreviationSpat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-5845
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Infectious Diseases
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles