How to format your references using the Learning, Media and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Media and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields, R. Douglas. 2014. “Neuroscience. Myelin--More than Insulation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6181): 264–266.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasello, Michael, and Juliane Kaminski. 2009. “Behavior. Like Infant, like Dog.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5945): 1213–1214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mani, Ankur, Iyad Rahwan, and Alex Pentland. 2013. “Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation.” Scientific Reports 3: 1735.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Liang, Qingwen Gu, Xufeng Zhou, Saixi Lee, Yonggao Xia, and Zhaoping Liu. 2013. “New-Concept Batteries Based on Aqueous Li+/Na+ Mixed-Ion Electrolytes.” Scientific Reports 3: 1946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fan, Jinghong. 2010. Multiscale Analysis of Deformation and Failure of Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Trebše, Rihard, ed. 2012. Infected Total Joint Arthroplasty: The Algorithmic Approach. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Albright, Jamie N., Cynthia D. Fair, and Christy Newman. 2016. “Psychosocial Considerations for Children and Adolescents with HIV.” In A Clinical Guide to Pediatric HIV: Bridging the Gaps Between Research and Practice, edited by Tiffany Chenneville, 73–94. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Media and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “What Causes Necrotising Fasciitis, The Flesh-Eating Bug?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Transportation Safety: Information Concerning Why a 1980 Aircraft Report Was Not Provided Earlier to the National Transportation Safety Board. OSI-00-2R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, Marguerita L. 2013. “Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2013. “Where Art Is in the Air, and in the Ground.” New York Times, October 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fields 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fields 2014; Tomasello and Kaminski 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomasello and Kaminski 2009)
  • Three authors: (Mani, Rahwan, and Pentland 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Media and Technology
AbbreviationLearn. Media Technol.
ISSN (print)1743-9884
ISSN (online)1743-9892
ScopeMedia Technology

Other styles