How to format your references using the Learning, Media and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Media and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M. 2000. “SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Experts Downplay New VCJD Fears.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5485): 1663b–1666b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Göpfert, M. C., and D. Robert. 2001. “Biomechanics. Turning the Key on Drosophila Audition.” Nature 411 (6840): 908.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakoshi, Hideji, Hong Wang, and Ryohei Yasuda. 2011. “Local, Persistent Activation of Rho GTPases during Plasticity of Single Dendritic Spines.” Nature 472 (7341): 100–104.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gray, W. M., S. Kepinski, D. Rouse, O. Leyser, and M. Estelle. 2001. “Auxin Regulates SCF(TIR1)-Dependent Degradation of AUX/IAA Proteins.” Nature 414 (6861): 271–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flaus, Jean-Marie. 2013. Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale, and Annette Scheersoi, eds. 2015. Natural History Dioramas: History, Construction and Educational Role. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jaramillo, David, Borko Furht, and Ankur Agarwal. 2014. “Mobile Virtualization Reference Architecture.” In Virtualization Techniques for Mobile Systems, edited by Borko Furht and Ankur Agarwal, 37–53. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Media and Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “This Spray Can Turn Any Surface Into A Touch Screen.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Federal Agencies’ Actions To Implement Section 11 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980. RCED-84-60. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khaleghi, Farrah K. 2017. “Evaluating Satisfaction of Participants within the Outreach and Engagement Program of MECCA.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sexton, Linda Gray. 2009. “A Tortured Inheritance.” New York Times, April 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Göpfert and Robert 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Göpfert and Robert 2001)
  • Three authors: (Murakoshi, Wang, and Yasuda 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gray et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Media and Technology
AbbreviationLearn. Media Technol.
ISSN (print)1743-9884
ISSN (online)1743-9892
ScopeMedia Technology

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