How to format your references using the Learning, Media and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Media and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruelle, D. 2001. “Here Be No Dragons.” Nature 411 (6833): 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moran, Thomas G., and Joseph M. Davila. 2004. “Three-Dimensional Polarimetric Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5680): 66–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng, Min, Jin Zhao, and Hrvoje Petek. 2008. “Atomlike, Hollow-Core-Bound Molecular Orbitals of C60.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5874): 359–362.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, Kun, Wei Rong, Lin Qi, Jiarui Li, Xuening Wei, and Zengyan Zhang. 2013. “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Wheat Cysteine-Rich Receptor-like Kinase Gene Induced by Rhizoctonia Cerealis.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3021.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Battu, Daniel. 2014. New Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Skorupa, Wolfgang, and Heidemarie Schmidt, eds. 2014. Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions. Vol. 192. Springer Series in Materials Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlüter, Regina G., and Juana Norrild. 2015. “Enotourism in Argentina: The Power of Wine to Promote a Region.” In Tourism in Latin America: Cases of Success, edited by Alexandre Panosso Netto and Luiz Gonzaga Godoi Trigo, 71–84. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Media and Technology.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. “Scotland To Construct World’s Largest Floating Wind Farm.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks. OIMC-92-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, Kaigang. 2010. “An Explicative Model of Leisure-Time Physical Activities among Church-Going African Americans in Indianapolis.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2015. “Puerto Rico Debt Crisis Closes In on Jan. 1 Deadline.” New York Times, December 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruelle 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ruelle 2001; Moran and Davila 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moran and Davila 2004)
  • Three authors: (Feng, Zhao, and Petek 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Media and Technology
AbbreviationLearn. Media Technol.
ISSN (print)1743-9884
ISSN (online)1743-9892
ScopeMedia Technology

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