How to format your references using the Learning, Media and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Media and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bayry, Jagadeesh. 2008. “Journal Club. An Immunologist Applauds a Protein That Prunes Intolerant White Blood Cells.” Nature 456 (7220): 285.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe, J. Stuart B., and Abraham Loeb. 2004. “A Large Neutral Fraction of Cosmic Hydrogen a Billion Years after the Big Bang.” Nature 427 (6977): 815–817.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mora, Camilo, Roberto Danovaro, and Michel Loreau. 2014. “Alternative Hypotheses to Explain Why Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Relationships Are Concave-up in Some Natural Ecosystems but Concave-down in Manipulative Experiments.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lu, R., M. Maduro, F. Li, H. W. Li, G. Broitman-Maduro, W. X. Li, and S. W. Ding. 2005. “Animal Virus Replication and RNAi-Mediated Antiviral Silencing in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Nature 436 (7053): 1040–1043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida, J. P. Moitinho, and Edward A. W. Maunder. 2017. Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bezandry, Paul H. 2011. Almost Periodic Stochastic Processes. Edited by Toka Diagana. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Coats, Brian, and Subrata Acharya. 2013. “Achieving Electronic Health Record Access from the Cloud.” In Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Masaaki Kurosu, 26–35. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Media and Technology.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Carbon Nanotubes Can Act As ‘Bridges’ Between Living Neurons.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. ADP Management: Status of the Army’s Logistics and Technical Information Initiatives. IMTEC-89-10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McAvoy, David L. 2012. “Coming of Age with Shakespeare: The Convergence of American Youth Culture and High Culture since the 1980s.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2002. “World Business Briefing | Europe: Russia: Genetics Rule Considered.” New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bayry 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bayry 2008; Wyithe and Loeb 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe and Loeb 2004)
  • Three authors: (Mora, Danovaro, and Loreau 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lu et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Media and Technology
AbbreviationLearn. Media Technol.
ISSN (print)1743-9884
ISSN (online)1743-9892
ScopeMedia Technology

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