How to format your references using the Early Childhood Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Messersmith, P. B. (2008). Materials science. Multitasking in tissues and materials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1767–1768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Viswanathan, M., & Guarente, L. (2011). Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan by sir-2.1 transgenes. Nature, 477(7365), E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs, J. P., Anderson, R. F., & Lehman, S. J. (2001). Glacial surface temperatures of the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2077–2079.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kinoshita, T., Doi, M., Suetsugu, N., Kagawa, T., Wada, M., & Shimazaki, K. (2001). Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Nature, 414(6864), 656–660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attoh-Okine, N. O. (2017). Big Data and Differential Privacy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barnes, I., & Rudzinski, K. J. (Eds.). (2006). Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes (Vol. 62). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kitromilides, Y. (2016). Arab Countries in Transition in the Aftermath of the Great Recession: The Policy Options. In P. Arestis & M. Sawyer (Eds.), Emerging Economies During and After the Great Recession (pp. 116–153). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 9). Scientists Use The Power Of Acoustics For Real-Life Levitation. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). NASA’s FMFIA Assertions and CFO Plan (No. AFMD-93-65R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teo, Y. M. (2017). Acculturation Levels, Social Media Usage and Their Relationship with Dietary Patterns among Asian American Young Adults (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, August 27). Max Ritvo, 25, Poet Who Chronicled His Cancer Fight. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Messersmith, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Messersmith, 2008; Viswanathan & Guarente, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Viswanathan & Guarente, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Sachs, Anderson, & Lehman, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kinoshita et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
AbbreviationEarly Child. Res. Q.
ISSN (print)0885-2006
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles