How to format your references using the Early Childhood Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sabadini, R. (2002). Paleoclimate. Ice sheet collapse and sea level change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2376–2377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Z., & Shalaev, V. M. (2011). Physics. Plasmonics goes quantum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6055), 463–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, C. D., Johnson, D. S., & Sidow, A. (2007). Functional architecture and evolution of transcriptional elements that drive gene coexpression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5844), 1557–1560.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Su, R.-Q., Lai, Y.-C., Wang, X., & Do, Y. (2014). Uncovering hidden nodes in complex networks in the presence of noise. Scientific Reports, 4, 3944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henden, J. (2011). Beating Combat Stress. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yamanaka, R. (Ed.). (2012). Glioma: Immunotherapeutic Approaches. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kober, V., Mozerov, M., & Álvarez-Borrego, J. (2005). Automatic Removal of Impulse Noise from Highly Corrupted Images. In A. Sanfeliu & M. L. Cortés (Eds.), Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications: 10th Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition, CIARP 2005, Havana, Cuba, November 15-18, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 34–41). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 28). Why Only Some People Can Do These Ten “Tricks” With Their Body.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). School Choice: Private School Choice Programs Are Growing and Can Complicate Providing Certain Federally Funded Services to Eligible Students (No. GAO-16-712). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cabrales, M. (2010). Gupta Rajpoot scheme for quark flavor mixing (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & de la MERCED, M. J. (2010, June 2). Big Setback For A.I.G. In Repaying Taxpayers. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sabadini, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jacob & Shalaev, 2011; Sabadini, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob & Shalaev, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Brown, Johnson, & Sidow, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Su, Lai, Wang, & Do, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
AbbreviationEarly Child. Res. Q.
ISSN (print)0885-2006
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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