How to format your references using the Early Childhood Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bode, M. (2004). Physics. The environment matters--even on the atomic scale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5695), 423–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doudna, J. A., & Cech, T. R. (2002). The chemical repertoire of natural ribozymes. Nature, 418(6894), 222–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Kritzinger, S., & Skirbekk, V. (2006). Population. The demography of growing European identity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5798), 425.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Boussau, B., Blanquart, S., Necsulea, A., Lartillot, N., & Gouy, M. (2008). Parallel adaptations to high temperatures in the Archaean eon. Nature, 456(7224), 942–945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yaacoub, E. E., & Dawy, Z. (2012). Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guelfi, N., & Savidis, A. (Eds.). (2006). Rapid Integration of Software Engineering Techniques: Second International Workshop, RISE 2005, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 8-9, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3943). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, R., & Cervo, D. (2013). Android ADK. In D. Cervo (Ed.), Pro Arduino (pp. 63–90). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 7). Robocabs: How Long Before you Ditch Your Car for a Driverless Electric Taxi? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Information Technology: Selected Agencies’ Use of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software for Human Resources Functions (AIMD-00-270). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar, M. D. (2012). Wagner domesticated, Wagner democratized: The parlor reception of Musikdrama [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, January 15). The Paintings of an ‘Outsider’ Are (Finally) Revealed. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bode, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bode, 2004; Doudna & Cech, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doudna & Cech, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lutz et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Boussau et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
AbbreviationEarly Child. Res. Q.
ISSN (print)0885-2006
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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