How to format your references using the Early Childhood Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Risbey, J. (2015). Earth science: Free and forced climate variations. Nature, 517(7536), 562–563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huebsch, N., & Mooney, D. J. (2009). Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials. Nature, 462(7272), 426–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pauluis, O., Czaja, A., & Korty, R. (2008). The global atmospheric circulation on moist isentropes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1075–1078.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sparrow, C., Martín-López, E., Maraviglia, N., Neville, A., Harrold, C., Carolan, J., Joglekar, Y. N., Hashimoto, T., Matsuda, N., O’Brien, J. L., Tew, D. P., & Laing, A. (2018). Simulating the vibrational quantum dynamics of molecules using photonics. Nature, 557(7707), 660–667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani, G., Laporte, G., & Musmanno, R. (2013). Introduction to Logistics Systems Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tropea, C., & Bleckmann, H. (Eds.). (2012). Nature-Inspired Fluid Mechanics: Results of the DFG Priority Programme 1207 ”Nature-inspired Fluid Mechanics” 2006-2012 (Vol. 119). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Amorim, M. N., Ferreira, A., & Meira-Machado, L. (2016). Micro-Analysis of Mortality in Urban Areas. The Parish of Oliveira in Guimarães, in Northern Portugal Between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries. In D. Ramiro Fariñas & M. Oris (Eds.), New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition (pp. 77–93). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 30). Spiral Arms Seen Around Stars May Have Been Made By Giant Planets. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aircraft Noise: Eight Airports’ Efforts to Mitigate Noise (RCED-89-189). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander, M. (2009). Reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, May 6). Dwindling Funds Jeopardize Immigrant Center. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Risbey, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Huebsch & Mooney, 2009; Risbey, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huebsch & Mooney, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Pauluis et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sparrow et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
AbbreviationEarly Child. Res. Q.
ISSN (print)0885-2006
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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