How to format your references using the Early Childhood Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2003). Tougher rules aim to prevent gene flow into crops. Nature, 422(6928), 103.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simonson, A. B., & Lake, J. A. (2002). The transorientation hypothesis for codon recognition during protein synthesis. Nature, 416(6878), 281–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel, T., Deng, C.-X., & Mostoslavsky, R. (2009). Recent progress in the biology and physiology of sirtuins. Nature, 460(7255), 587–591.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Z., Wang, Y., Ai, X., Tu, W., & Pan, M. (2014). Photoregenerative I/I₃ couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Scientific Reports, 4, 6795.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zadora, G., Martyna, A., Ramos, D., & Aitken, C. (2013). Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Abraham, A., Hassanien, A.-E., & Sná¿el, V. (Eds.). (2010). Computational Social Network Analysis: Trends, Tools and Research Advances. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rzany, B. (2007). Injection Technique. In M. de Maio & B. Rzany (Eds.), Botulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine (pp. 25–26). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 18). Four Things You Should Be Doing To Protect Yourself From Cyberattack. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Consolidation Loan Borrower Interest Rates (GAO-05-389R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Loden, M. R. (2010). The rhetorical elephant in the room: How three political action committees are strategically [re]defining the U.S. Republican Party [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 18). Long Game Leaves Mets’ Bullpen Weary, and Ready for a Reinforcement. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2003; Simonson & Lake, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simonson & Lake, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Finkel et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
AbbreviationEarly Child. Res. Q.
ISSN (print)0885-2006
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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