How to format your references using the Learning, Culture and Social Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clutton-Brock, T. (2007). Sexual selection in males and females. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5858), 1882–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haldar, A., & Shenoy, V. B. (2014). Cooling a band insulator with a metal: fermionic superfluid in a dimerized holographic lattice. Scientific Reports, 4, 6655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalisz, S., Vogler, D. W., & Hanley, K. M. (2004). Context-dependent autonomous self-fertilization yields reproductive assurance and mixed mating. Nature, 430(7002), 884–887.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Di Rienzo, C., Jacchetti, E., Cardarelli, F., Bizzarri, R., Beltram, F., & Cecchini, M. (2013). Unveiling LOX-1 receptor interplay with nanotopography: mechanotransduction and atherosclerosis onset. Scientific Reports, 3, 1141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher, M. J. (2010). Retirement Portfolios Workbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lasaponara, R., & Masini, N. (Eds.). (2012). Satellite Remote Sensing: A New Tool for Archaeology (Vol. 16). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Daastøl, A. M. (2015). Austerity Versus Productive Investment: Two Traditions in Capital Formation and Growth. In J. Backhaus (Ed.), Great Nations at Peril (pp. 77–118). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 3). Six Different Ways To Think About ‘Extinction.’ IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Student Financial Aid: Use of Middleware for Systems Integration Holds Promise (GAO-02-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens, J. R. (2011). The experience of recovery from alcohol/drugs (AOD) [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, September 12). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Another Catholic Priest Barred. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clutton-Brock, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Clutton-Brock, 2007; Haldar & Shenoy, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haldar & Shenoy, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kalisz et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Di Rienzo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Culture and Social Interaction
AbbreviationLearn. Cult. Soc. Interact.
ISSN (print)2210-6561

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