How to format your references using the Learning, Culture and Social Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. (2003). Antibodies where you want them. Nature, 426(6967), 729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H., & Tromp, J. (2013). Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 871–875.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depine, G. V., Andronicos, C. L., & Phipps-Morgan, J. (2008). Near-isothermal conditions in the middle and lower crust induced by melt migration. Nature, 452(7183), 80–83.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eckburg, P. B., Bik, E. M., Bernstein, C. N., Purdom, E., Dethlefsen, L., Sargent, M., Gill, S. R., Nelson, K. E., & Relman, D. A. (2005). Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5728), 1635–1638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lueder, E. (2011). 3D Displays. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ghate, C., & Kletzer, K. M. (Eds.). (2016). Monetary Policy in India: A Modern Macroeconomic Perspective. Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Harel, D., & Feldman, Y. (2008). Metodi algoritmici. In Y. Feldman (Ed.), Algoritmi: Lo spirito dell’informatica (pp. 99–119). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 28). Astrophysicists Create The Most Comprehensive Map Of The Universe Yet. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Aviation Administration: Preliminary Observations of Potential Air Traffic Control Restructuring Transition Issues (GAO-16-386R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krutsinger, R. (2014). Evaluation of Grassland Restoration Success in Illinois Using Indicators of Ecosystem Function [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mccain, J. (2017, May 8). We Must Support Human Rights. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Moore, 2003; Zhu & Tromp, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu & Tromp, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Depine et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Eckburg et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Culture and Social Interaction
AbbreviationLearn. Cult. Soc. Interact.
ISSN (print)2210-6561

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