How to format your references using the Learning, Culture and Social Interaction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. (2003). A question of form. Nature, 422(6929), 341.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos, A. A. N., & Bradley, R. A. (2009). Environment. Energy and technology policies for managing carbon risk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 949–950.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilman, D., Hill, J., & Lehman, C. (2006). Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1598–1600.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Spence, J. R., Mayhew, C. N., Rankin, S. A., Kuhar, M. F., Vallance, J. E., Tolle, K., Hoskins, E. E., Kalinichenko, V. V., Wells, S. I., Zorn, A. M., Shroyer, N. F., & Wells, J. M. (2011). Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intestinal tissue in vitro. Nature, 470(7332), 105–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marage, J.-P., & Mori, Y. (2013). Sonar and Underwater Acoustics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kumar, A., Fernández, H., & Revilla, M. A. (Eds.). (2010). Working with Ferns: Issues and Applications (1st ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holzer, A., Januzaj, V., Kugele, S., & Tautschnig, M. (2010). Timely Time Estimates. In T. Margaria & B. Steffen (Eds.), Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: 4th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications, ISoLA 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 18-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 33–46). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning, Culture and Social Interaction.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 19). A Ghost Chili Pepper Gives Man A Hole In His Esophagus. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-Front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest (GAO-08-1149R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat, A. M. (2015). Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, December 10). Brando: Off the Waterfront, Into the Seminar Rooms. New York Times, 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Patrinos & Bradley, 2009; Smith, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patrinos & Bradley, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Tilman et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Spence et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning, Culture and Social Interaction
AbbreviationLearn. Cult. Soc. Interact.
ISSN (print)2210-6561

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