How to format your references using the Latin American Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American Perspectives (LAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, Robert F.
2002 “Battle to become the next-generation x-ray source.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5597): 1356–1358
A journal article with 2 authors
Sakaguchi, Shimon and Fiona Powrie
2007 “Emerging challenges in regulatory T cell function and biology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5838): 627–629
A journal article with 3 authors
Young, W. R., A. J. Roberts, and G. Stuhne
2001 “Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms.” Nature 412 (6844): 328–331
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, Feifei, Xueqiang Liu, Lili Hu, and Danping Chen
2014 “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses.” Scientific reports 4: 5053

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Albalate, Amparo and Wolfgang Minker
2013 Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Maslen, Eric H. and Gerhard Schweitzer (Eds.)
2009 Magnetic Bearings: Theory, Design, and Application to Rotating Machinery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Papadimitriou, Christos H.
2007 “The Computation of Equilibria.” pp. 5–6 in Xiaotie Deng and Fan Chung Graham (eds.), Internet and Network Economics: Third International Workshop, WINE 2007, San Diego, CA, USA, December 12-14, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American Perspectives.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo
2016, November 4 “We Now Know How The Zebrafish Can Regenerate Its Spinal Cord.” IFLScience. IFLScience. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
2008 Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s and NASA’s Research and Development Plans for Noise Reduction Are Aligned but the Prospects of Achieving Noise Reduction Goals Are Uncertain ( No. GAO-08-384). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, Eric D.
2014 The Nature of Leadership: A Case Study of Distributed Leadership Amidst A Participative Change Effort (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, Kelly Pate
2005, December 4 “Still Searching for Equilibrium In the Work-Life Balancing Act.” New York Times p. 101

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2002, Sakaguchi & Powrie, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sakaguchi & Powrie, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Young, Roberts, & Stuhne, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American Perspectives
AbbreviationLat. Am. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0094-582X
ISSN (online)1552-678X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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