How to format your references using the Latin American Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American Perspectives (LAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffmann, Jules A.
2003 “The immune response of Drosophila.” Nature 426 (6962): 33–38
A journal article with 2 authors
Read, Steve M. and Tony Bacic
2002 “Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 59–60
A journal article with 3 authors
Maisel, Sascha B., Michaela Höfler, and Stefan Müller
2012 “A canonical stability-elasticity relationship verified for one million face-centred-cubic structures.” Nature 491 (7426): 740–743
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goldman, Alan S., Amy H. Roy, Zheng Huang, Ritu Ahuja, William Schinski, and Maurice Brookhart
2006 “Catalytic alkane metathesis by tandem alkane dehydrogenation-olefin metathesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5771): 257–261

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood, Joanne M.
2014 Practitioner’s Guide to GAAS 2014. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mason, Lorne, Tadeusz Drwiega, and James Yan (Eds.)
2007 Managing Traffic Performance in Converged Networks: 20th International Teletraffic Congress, ITC20 2007, Ottawa, Canada, June 17-21, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 4516. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, Sunil and Rachita Gulati
2014 “Relevance of Non-traditional Activities on the Efficiency of Indian Banks.” pp. 167–200 in Rachita Gulati (ed.), Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks, India Studies in Business and Economics. New Delhi: Springer India

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American Perspectives.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen
2017, January 20 “Men And Women Have The Same Size Amygdalae.” IFLScience. IFLScience. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1991 Space Shuttle: NASA Should Implement Independent Oversight of Software Development ( No. IMTEC-91-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coulibaly, Ibrahima
2017 Influence of Gender and Age on the Performance of a PBIS program: Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Data from a Midwestern Suburban Public Middle School (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch, George A.
2011, April 24 “The Humanity of the Long-Distance Runner.” New York Times p. SP10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffmann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Read & Bacic, 2002, Hoffmann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Read & Bacic, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Maisel, Höfler, & Müller, 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Goldman et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American Perspectives
AbbreviationLat. Am. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0094-582X
ISSN (online)1552-678X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles