How to format your references using the Latin American Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American Perspectives (LAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charlesworth, B.
2000 “No pie in the sky, thanks.” Nature 404 (6777): 431
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, Brian C. and Keith R. Yamamoto
2002 “Disassembly of transcriptional regulatory complexes by molecular chaperones.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5576): 2232–2235
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia, Yanwei, J. Aquiles Sanchez, and Lawrence J. Wangh
2014 “Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations.” Scientific reports 4: 5921
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hölker, Franz, Doug Beare, Hendrik Dörner, Antonio di Natale, Hans-Joachim Rätz, Axel Temming, and John Casey
2007 “Comment on ‘Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5829): 1285; author reply 1285

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Bruce L., Suzanne B. Hendrix, Dawson W. Hedges, and Timothy B. Smith
2011 Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schwarz, Anna and Johannes Janicka (Eds.)
2009 Combustion Noise. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Michels, Jan, Esther Appel, and Stanislav N. Gorb
2016 “Resilin – The Pliant Protein.” pp. 89–136 in Ephraim Cohen and Bernard Moussian (eds.), Extracellular Composite Matrices in Arthropods, Extracellular and supporting structures. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise
2015, February 3 “Dear Parents, Let’s Talk About Measles.” IFLScience. IFLScience. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1991 Computer Technology: Air Attack Warning System Cannot Process All Radar Track Data ( No. IMTEC-91-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castiglione, Abigail
2010 Counterproductive work behaviors: The role of employee support policies, envy, and narcissism (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary
2013, September 15 “Russia Is Persuaded To Alter Statement To Call for Inclusion.” New York Times p. SP11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charlesworth, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Charlesworth, 2000, Freeman & Yamamoto, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman & Yamamoto, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Jia, Sanchez, & Wangh, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hölker et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American Perspectives
AbbreviationLat. Am. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0094-582X
ISSN (online)1552-678X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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