How to format your references using the Latin American Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American Perspectives (LAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul
2005 “A global view.” Nature 435 (7044): 997
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, Dongwook and Jiwon Seo
2014 “Three-dimensionally networked graphene hydroxide with giant pores and its application in supercapacitors.” Scientific reports 4: 7419
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams, Matthew A., Aaron J. Tyznik, and Michael J. Bevan
2006 “Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cells.” Nature 441 (7095): 890–893
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, Yung-An, Chun-Wei Kao, Kuang-Kai Liu, Hou-Syun Huang, Ming-Han Chiang, Ching-Ren Soo, Huan-Cheng Chang, et al.
2014 “The effect of fluorescent nanodiamonds on neuronal survival and morphogenesis.” Scientific reports 4: 6919

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leung, Mei-Yung, Isabelle Yee Shan Chan, and Cary L. Cooper
2014 Stress Management in the Construction Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Wu, Guorong, Pierrick Coupé, Yiqiang Zhan, Brent C. Munsell, and Daniel Rueckert (Eds.)
2016 Patch-Based Techniques in Medical Imaging: Second International Workshop, Patch-MI 2016, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2016, Athens, Greece, October 17, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 9993. Cham: Springer International Publishing
A chapter in an edited book
Karpanty, Sarah M. and Patricia C. Wright
2007 “Predation on Lemurs in the Rainforest of Madagascar by Multiple Predator Species: Observations and Experiments.” pp. 77–99 in Sharon L. Gursky and K. A. I. Nekaris (eds.), Primate Anti-Predator Strategies, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Boston, MA: Springer US

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American Perspectives.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy
2016, November 28 “Construction Workers Unearthed Something Very Unexpected While Digging A Hole.” IFLScience. IFLScience. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1996 Aviation Safety: New Airlines Illustrate Long-Standing Problems in FAA’s Inspection Program ( No. RCED-97-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fay, John Everett
2014 California employer perspectives on older working adults specific to the Affordable Care Act health insurance mandate (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr. and Rick Rojas
2016, February 7 “An Impostor’s Lives and Lies.” New York Times p. MB1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2005, Lee & Seo, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Seo, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Williams, Tyznik, & Bevan, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American Perspectives
AbbreviationLat. Am. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0094-582X
ISSN (online)1552-678X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles