How to format your references using the Latin American Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American Perspectives (LAP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner, Reinhold
2007 “Applied physics. Filling the terahertz gap.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5854): 1254–1255
A journal article with 2 authors
Errington, J. R. and P. G. Debenedetti
2001 “Relationship between structural order and the anomalies of liquid water.” Nature 409 (6818): 318–321
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Zhen, Attila Szolnoki, and Matjaž Perc
2013 “Interdependent network reciprocity in evolutionary games.” Scientific reports 3: 1183
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kuroha, Takeshi, Keisuke Nagai, Rico Gamuyao, Diane R. Wang, Tomoyuki Furuta, Masanari Nakamori, Takuya Kitaoka, et al.
2018 “Ethylene-gibberellin signaling underlies adaptation of rice to periodic flooding.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (6398): 181–186

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leis, John W.
2011 Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB for Students and Researchers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jensen, Torben Heick (Ed.)
2010 RNA Exosome. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Vol. 702. New York, NY: Springer US
A chapter in an edited book
Bruschi, Lorenzo and Giampaolo Mistura
2015 “The Quartz Crystal Microbalance as a Nanotribology Technique.” pp. 79–91 in Enrico Gnecco and Ernst Meyer (eds.), Fundamentals of Friction and Wear on the Nanoscale, NanoScience and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise
2015, February 11 “New Dog Robot Can Run and Climb Just Like The Real Thing.” IFLScience. IFLScience. (accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1983 Does AFDC Workfare Work: Information Is Not Yet Available From HHS’s Demonstration Projects ( No. IPE-83-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thixton, Hana Lea
2017 Identification of Site-Specific Mycorrhizal Fungi Associates of the Federally Threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) in Illinois (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James
2017, September 3 “Conforto Set For Surgery; Mets Drop 2.” New York Times p. SP3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Errington & Debenedetti, 2001, Kleiner, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Errington & Debenedetti, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Szolnoki, & Perc, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kuroha et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American Perspectives
AbbreviationLat. Am. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0094-582X
ISSN (online)1552-678X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles