How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel, Jay S. 2012. “Materials Chemistry: Carbon Origami.” Nature 486 (7403): 327–328.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olsen, Shawn R., and Rachel I. Wilson. 2008. “Lateral Presynaptic Inhibition Mediates Gain Control in an Olfactory Circuit.” Nature 452 (7190): 956–960.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jonsson, Gustav Edman, Vladimir Miljkovic, and Alexandre Dmitriev. 2014. “Nanoplasmon-Enabled Macroscopic Thermal Management.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 5111.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Davis, Earl, Keir Becker, Robert Dziak, John Cassidy, Kelin Wang, and Marvin Lilley. 2004. “Hydrological Response to a Seafloor Spreading Episode on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.” Nature 430 (6997): 335–338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, Saeed V. 2001. Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Abramowicz, Witold, and Dominik Flejter, eds. 2009. Business Information Systems Workshops: BIS 2009 International Workshops, Poznan, Poland, April 27-29, 2009. Revised Papers. Vol. 37. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fraley, Stephanie I., Christopher M. Hale, Ryan J. Bloom, Alfredo Celedon, Jerry S. H. Lee, and Denis Wirtz. 2011. “Intra- and Extracellular Microrheology of Endothelial Cells in a 3D Matrix.” In Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly, edited by Sharon Gerecht, 69–87. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “This Is Why Your Nose Looks Like It Does.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. NASA Property: Poor Lending Practices and Controls at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NSIAD-94-116. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinchey, Bruce Andrew. 2010. “Punishing the Penitent: Disproportionate Fines in Recent FCPA Enforcements and Suggested Improvements.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2010. “Only Soy Died for These Dishes.” New York Times, March 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Siegel 2012; Olsen and Wilson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olsen and Wilson 2008)
  • Three authors: (Jonsson, Miljkovic, and Dmitriev 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Davis et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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