How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ransohoff, David F. 2003. “Cancer. Developing Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5613): 1679–1680.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo, Kannatassen, and Richard F. Haglund Jr. 2014. “Polarization Selective Phase-Change Nanomodulator.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, Jiangchao, Susan Murray, and John J. Lipuma. 2014. “Modeling the Impact of Antibiotic Exposure on Human Microbiota.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4345.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Hui, Bin Yang, Roger J. Pomerantz, Chune Zhang, Shyamala C. Arunachalam, and Ling Gao. 2003. “The Cytidine Deaminase CEM15 Induces Hypermutation in Newly Synthesized HIV-1 DNA.” Nature 424 (6944): 94–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanders, Sean. 2015. Seizures in Dogs and Cats. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
He, Xiaofei, Xinbo Gao, Yanning Zhang, Zhi-Hua Zhou, Zhi-Yong Liu, Baochuan Fu, Fuyuan Hu, and Zhancheng Zhang, eds. 2015. Intelligence Science and Big Data Engineering. Big Data and Machine Learning Techniques: 5th International Conference, IScIDE 2015, Suzhou, China, June 14-16, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Vol. 9243. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ponsky, Lee E., and Gino Vricella. 2012. “Prostate Surgery and the Evolution to Minimally Invasive Therapies.” In Robotic Radiosurgery. Treating Prostate Cancer and Related Genitourinary Applications, edited by Lee E. Ponsky, Donald B. Fuller, Robert M. Meier, and Charlie Ma, 41–47. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Studies Find Mysterious Link Between Native Americans And Indigenous Australasians.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation. GAO-06-22. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres, Nhordia. 2012. “Do Family Nurse Practitioner Students Understand the Physiological Changes Associated with Andropause in Men over Forty?” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2015. “The Supreme Court and the Politics of Fear.” New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ransohoff 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ransohoff 2003; Appavoo and Haglund 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo and Haglund 2014)
  • Three authors: (Zhao, Murray, and Lipuma 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles