How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, Robert. 2002. “Computerized Role Models.” Nature 417 (6892): 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Handschin, Christoph, and Bruce M. Spiegelman. 2008. “The Role of Exercise and PGC1alpha in Inflammation and Chronic Disease.” Nature 454 (7203): 463–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baumgart, Tobias, Samuel T. Hess, and Watt W. Webb. 2003. “Imaging Coexisting Fluid Domains in Biomembrane Models Coupling Curvature and Line Tension.” Nature 425 (6960): 821–824.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rowland, Harry D., William P. King, John B. Pethica, and Graham L. W. Cross. 2008. “Molecular Confinement Accelerates Deformation of Entangled Polymers during Squeeze Flow.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5902): 720–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike. 2007. A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gorodetsky, Vladimir, Jiming Liu, and Victor A. Skormin, eds. 2005. Autonomous Intelligent Systems: Agents and Data Mining: International Workshop, AIS-ADM 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 6-8, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3505. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Du, Yi, Jennifer L. Hsu, Ying-Nai Wang, and Mien-Chie Hung. 2015. “Nuclear Functions of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.” In Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Structure, Functions and Role in Human Disease, edited by Deric L. Wheeler and Yosef Yarden, 77–109. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Why You Should Never Squash A Spider.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Relocation of Offices and Related Alterations to Buildings in Michoud, Lousiana. B-177038. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vail, Aleta Susan. 2012. “The Gift of Noetic Image: Spontaneous Imagery and Psychological Well-Being in Women with Breast Cancer.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2003. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Army Diet Found Lacking.” New York Times, November 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl 2002; Handschin and Spiegelman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008)
  • Three authors: (Baumgart, Hess, and Webb 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rowland et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles