How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, David. 2003. “Western Japan: Go West, Young Postdoc.” Nature 424 (6946): 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chokshi, Dave A., and Thomas A. Farley. 2014. “Health. Changing Behaviors to Prevent Noncommunicable Diseases.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6202): 1243–1244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bryant, P., T. Nunes, and R. Snaith. 2000. “Children Learn an Untaught Rule of Spelling.” Nature 403 (6766): 157–158.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Finger, Thomas E., Vicktoria Danilova, Jennell Barrows, Dianna L. Bartel, Alison J. Vigers, Leslie Stone, Goran Hellekant, and Sue C. Kinnamon. 2005. “ATP Signaling Is Crucial for Communication from Taste Buds to Gustatory Nerves.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5753): 1495–1499.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell, Edward, and Ajit Narayanan. 2005. Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Borwein, Jonathan M. 2012. An Introduction to Modern Mathematical Computing: With Mathematica®. Edited by Matthew P. Skerritt. Springer Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Foltin, Pavel, Andrej Rohál, and Mária Šikolová. 2013. “Policing in the Czech Republic: Evolution and Trends.” In Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Gorazd Meško, Charles B. Fields, Branko Lobnikar, and Andrej Sotlar, 57–80. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Solar Plane Is About To Embark On A Round-The-World Trip.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Delegation of GSA Procurement Authority for Automatic Data Processing Equipment Acquisitions. B-115369. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner, Ikem. 2017. “Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. 2017. “Start of Chiefs-Steelers Game Moved to Sunday Night.” New York Times, January 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2003; Chokshi and Farley 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chokshi and Farley 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bryant, Nunes, and Snaith 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Finger et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles