How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall. 2005. “Genomics. Recycling the Y Chromosome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5706): 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucić, Vladan, and Wolfgang Baumeister. 2005. “Neuroscience. Monte Carlo Places Strong Odds on Ectopic Release.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5733): 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorpe, S. K. S., R. L. Holder, and R. H. Crompton. 2007. “Origin of Human Bipedalism as an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5829): 1328–1331.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Abe, Mitsutomo, Yasushi Kobayashi, Sumiko Yamamoto, Yasufumi Daimon, Ayako Yamaguchi, Yoko Ikeda, Harutaka Ichinoki, Michitaka Notaguchi, Koji Goto, and Takashi Araki. 2005. “FD, a BZIP Protein Mediating Signals from the Floral Pathway Integrator FT at the Shoot Apex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5737): 1052–1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston, Michael. 2008. Powell-Smith & Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Duffuaa, Salih O. 2015. Planning and Control of Maintenance Systems: Modelling and Analysis. Edited by A. Raouf. 2nd ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Vivienne, and Elias G. Carayannis. 2012. “Results.” In Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries, edited by Elias G. Carayannis, 73–89. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Volcanoes May Have Heated Mars To Make Liquid Water Possible.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. International Aviation: Competition Issues in the U.S.-U.K. Market. T-RCED-97-103. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, Tanya. 2012. “The Influence of Physical Activity and Unsafe Neighborhoods on the Development of Gestational Diabetes among Women in California.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Senior, Jennifer. 2017. “A Teenager’s Mind At War With Itself.” New York Times, October 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graves 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Graves 2005; Lucić and Baumeister 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucić and Baumeister 2005)
  • Three authors: (Thorpe, Holder, and Crompton 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Abe et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles