How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham, Susan. 2010. “Call in the Women.” Nature 468 (7323): 502.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braakman, Ineke, and Mieko Otsu. 2008. “Biochemistry. Cargo Load Reduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5888): 499–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Church, John A., Neil J. White, and Julie M. Arblaster. 2005. “Significant Decadal-Scale Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on Sea Level and Ocean Heat Content.” Nature 438 (7064): 74–77.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Voznesenskaya, E. V., V. R. Franceschi, O. Kiirats, H. Freitag, and G. E. Edwards. 2001. “Kranz Anatomy Is Not Essential for Terrestrial C4 Plant Photosynthesis.” Nature 414 (6863): 543–546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernheim, Mary L. C. 2008. Ciba Foundation Symposium 39 - Monoamine Oxidase and Its Inhibition: Ciba/Monoamine. Novartis Foundation Symposia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Giardini, Francesca, and Frédéric Amblard, eds. 2013. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XIII: International Workshop, MABS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7838. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reinhard, Thomas. 2009. “Suspected Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Disease of the Anterior Segment.” In Color Atlas of Herpetic Eye Diseases: A Practical Guide to Clinical Management, edited by Rainer Sundmacher, 163–165. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “New Water Plumes From Jupiter’s Moon Europa Raise Hopes Of Detecting Microbial Life.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. ADP Equipment: Revised GSA Strategy for Microcomputer Purchases Can Improve Competition. IMTEC-86-20. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wester, Aaron Micah. 2013. “Readers’ Trust, Socio-Demographic, and Acuity Influences in Citizen Journalism Credibility for Disrupted Online Newspapers.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “On the Wrong Side of 5 to 4, Liberals Talk Tactics.” New York Times, July 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Buckingham 2010; Braakman and Otsu 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Braakman and Otsu 2008)
  • Three authors: (Church, White, and Arblaster 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Voznesenskaya et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles