How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolodner, R. D. 2000. “Guarding against Mutation.” Nature 407 (6805): 687, 689.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkenhoker, Brie A., and Eric I. Knudsen. 2002. “Incremental Training Increases the Plasticity of the Auditory Space Map in Adult Barn Owls.” Nature 419 (6904): 293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cincotta, R. P., J. Wisnewski, and R. Engelman. 2000. “Human Population in the Biodiversity Hotspots.” Nature 404 (6781): 990–992.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Halic, Mario, Michael Blau, Thomas Becker, Thorsten Mielke, Martin R. Pool, Klemens Wild, Irmgard Sinning, and Roland Beckmann. 2006. “Following the Signal Sequence from Ribosomal Tunnel Exit to Signal Recognition Particle.” Nature 444 (7118): 507–511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shanmugam, Ramalingam, and Rajan Chattamvelli. 2015. Statistics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nachtigall, Werner. 2015. Bionics by Examples: 250 Scenarios from Classical to Modern Times. Edited by Alfred Wisser. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulton, April M., and Keith D. Amberman. 2006. “How Ant Nests Increase Soil Biota Richness and Abundance: A Field Experiment.” In Arthropod Diversity and Conservation, edited by David L. Hawksworth and Alan T. Bull, 55–68. Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Pain Is More Than A Physical Process – Now A Study In Mice Suggests It May Even Be Socially Transferable.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Information Technology: Federal Agencies Face Challenges in Implementing Initiatives to Improve Public Health Infrastructure. GAO-05-308. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kern, Michael William. 2012. “Regional Phylogenetic Analysis of the Myology of Primates and Correlates in the Human Skeleton.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “Women and the Draft.” New York Times, April 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kolodner 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kolodner 2000; Linkenhoker and Knudsen 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Linkenhoker and Knudsen 2002)
  • Three authors: (Cincotta, Wisnewski, and Engelman 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Halic et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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