How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp, Martin. 2003. “Science in Culture: A Mechanical Mind.” Nature 421 (6920): 214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Danielle, and Leila Agha. 2015. “Research Funding. Big Names or Big Ideas: Do Peer-Review Panels Select the Best Science Proposals?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6233): 434–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta, Shamik, Clara Howcroft Ferreira, and Gero Miesenböck. 2014. “FoxP Influences the Speed and Accuracy of a Perceptual Decision in Drosophila.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6186): 901–904.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Persson, Lennart, Per-Arne Amundsen, André M. De Roos, Anders Klemetsen, Rune Knudsen, and Raul Primicerio. 2007. “Culling Prey Promotes Predator Recovery--Alternative States in a Whole-Lake Experiment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5832): 1743–1746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiske, Jay R., and Corinne A. Fiske. 2009. The Big Book of Benefit Auctions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bagnoli, Franco, Anna Satsiou, Ioannis Stavrakakis, Paolo Nesi, Giovanna Pacini, Yanina Welp, Thanassis Tiropanis, and Dominic DiFranzo, eds. 2016. Internet Science: Third International Conference, INSCI 2016, Florence, Italy, September 12-14, 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 9934. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gadducci, Fabio, Alberto Lluch Lafuente, and Andrea Vandin. 2012. “Exploiting Over- and Under-Approximations for Infinite-State Counterpart Models.” In Graph Transformations: 6th International Conference, ICGT 2012, Bremen, Germany, September 24-29, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Hartmut Ehrig, Gregor Engels, Hans-Jörg Kreowski, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, 51–65. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Supersymmetry Dealt Another Blow By LHC.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Plans’ Coverage of Key Cyber Security Elements Varies. GAO-08-64T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De los Santos, Elidia. 2014. “Increasing the Psychological Well-Being of Undocumented Latino Youth Students in California: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cooper, Michael, and Ashley Southall. 2017. “A Subway Rescue by a Ballet Dancer.” New York Times, June 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp 2003; Li and Agha 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Agha 2015)
  • Three authors: (DasGupta, Ferreira, and Miesenböck 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Persson et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles