How to format your references using the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, Vivien. 2014. “Cell Communication: Stop the Microbial Chatter.” Nature 511 (7510): 493–497.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treguer, P., and P. Pondaven. 2000. “Global Change. Silica Control of Carbon Dioxide.” Nature 406 (6794): 358–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, Jannik C., Matthieu Paillet, and Siegmar Roth. 2005. “Single-Molecule Torsional Pendulum.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5740): 1539–1541.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shen, Qian-Hua, Yusuke Saijo, Stefan Mauch, Christoph Biskup, Stéphane Bieri, Beat Keller, Hikaru Seki, Bekir Ulker, Imre E. Somssich, and Paul Schulze-Lefert. 2007. “Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5815): 1098–1103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried, Thomas N. 2012. Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Heather, James, Steve Schneider, and Vanessa Teague, eds. 2013. E-Voting and Identify: 4th International Conference, Vote-ID 2013, Guildford, UK, July 17-19, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7985. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shult, Ernest, and David Surowski. 2015. “Permutation Groups and Group Actions.” In Algebra: A Teaching and Source Book, edited by David Surowski, 105–136. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Science Facts Behind Dr Who Sonic Screwdriver Are Even More Exciting Than Fiction.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Designing Evaluations: A Workbook. 129366. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savvas, Catherine. 2010. “Hydroclimate Variability and Landuse Effects on Nutrient Export from Watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2015. “Iceman Comes Out.” New York Times, November 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Marx 2014; Treguer and Pondaven 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Treguer and Pondaven 2000)
  • Three authors: (Meyer, Paillet, and Roth 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLatin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies
AbbreviationLat. Am. Caribb. Ethn. Stud.
ISSN (print)1744-2222
ISSN (online)1744-2230
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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