How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Verrijzer CP. Transcription factor IID--not so basal after all. Science 2001;293(5537):2010–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrisingh MC., Nitabach MN. Circadian rhythms. Integrating circadian timekeeping with cellular physiology. Science 2008;320(5878):879–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuth JA 3rd., Hill HG., Kletetschka G. Determining the ages of comets from the fraction of crystalline dust. Nature 2000;406(6793):275–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Plane JMC., Murray BJ., Chu X., et al. Removal of meteoric iron on polar mesospheric clouds. Science 2004;304(5669):426–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen RN. Practical Relativity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Baz IA., Otterpohl R., Wendland C. Efficient Management of Wastewater: Its Treatment and Reuse in Water-Scarce Countries. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bravo C., Sánchez N., García N., et al. Outdoor Vacant Parking Space Detector for Improving Mobility in Smart Cities. In: Correia L, Reis LP, and Cascalho J, editors. Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 16th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2013, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal, September 9-12, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 30–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Andrew E. See how the Great Pyramids and Other Wonders of the World Were Built. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Profiles of School Condition by State. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pepper I. On the Difference between Serialism and Seriality. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. QUICK BITE/Newark; The Best of Brazil. New York Times 2006:14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2210-4917
ISSN (online)2210-4925
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles