How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Zewail AH. The fog that was not. Nature 2001;412(6844):279.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Jones RH., Flynn KJ. Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey. Science 2005;307(5714):1457–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Griffin BM., Schott J., Schink B. Nitrite, an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Science 2007;316(5833):1870.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Fedoroff NV., Battisti DS., Beachy RN., et al. Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century. Science 2010;327(5967):833–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hirsch F., Kemp J., Ilkka J. Mobile Web Services. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Gutkowski W., Kowalewski TA. Mechanics of the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland, 15–21 August 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Harpe P., Hegt H., van Roermund A. Smart DA Conversion. In: Hegt H, and Harpe P, editors. Smart AD and DA Conversion. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 19–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Early Cretaceous Bloodsucking Bugs Found in China. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/early-cretaceous-bloodsucking-bugs-found-china/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. School Nutrition: USDA Has Efforts Underway to Help Address Ongoing Challenges Implementing Changes in Nutrition Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Kuang S-YH. “And the War Came”: A memorial to devastated lives. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chira S. Cosby as a Lens on the Gender Beat. New York Times 2017:A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2210-4917
ISSN (online)2210-4925
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rehabilitation
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles