How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S. Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science 2012;336(6083):876–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marks CO., Muller-Landau HC. Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.” Science 2007;316(5830):1425; author reply 1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meier DL., Koide S., Uchida Y. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets. Science 2001;291(5501):84–92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Min J-J., Huo X-L., Xiang L-Y., et al. Protective effect of Dl-3n-butylphthalide on learning and memory impairment induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia exposure. Sci Rep 2014;4:5555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee JC., McCormick NJ. Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Gavrilova ML., Tan CJK. Transactions on Computational Science I. vol. 4750. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Fomin FV., Kratsch D. Treewidth. In: Kratsch D, editor. Exact Exponential Algorithms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 77–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Davis J. China To Encourage Its Citizens To Eat 50 Percent Less Meat. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in the Department of the Interior’s Measurement of Offshore Oil for Royalty Purposes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ganji VG. Exploring the application of haptic feedback guidance for port crane modernization. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meier A., Musick K. Is the Family Dinner Overrated? New York Times 2012:SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2210-4917
ISSN (online)2210-4925
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles