How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation (JOTR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lawler A. Archaeology. Preserving history, one hill at a time. Science 2011;334(6063):1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Baker RP., Urban S. Cytosolic extensions directly regulate a rhomboid protease by modulating substrate gating. Nature 2015;523(7558):101–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chang JC., Lockner DA., Reches Z. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments. Science 2012;338(6103):101–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Fyhn M., Molden S., Witter MP., et al. Spatial representation in the entorhinal cortex. Science 2004;305(5688):1258–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kay R. Statistical Thinking for Non-Statisticians in Drug Regulation. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Courbage C. The Geneva Papers: 40 Years at the Cutting Edge of Research in Insurance Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Woods RJ., McCarthy MC. Abnormal Bleeding and Coagulopathies. In: Bland KI, Büchler MW, Csendes A et al., editors. General Surgery. London: Springer; 2009. p. 37–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. This Device Eats Polluted Air And Spits Out Power. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/this-device-eats-polluted-air-and-spits-out-power/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Transformation and Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gu P. Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPIAGN: Undeclared Candidate; Where Perot Exhibits A Lifetime of Memories. New York Times 1992:18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics, Trauma and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Trauma Rehabil.
ISSN (print)2210-4917
ISSN (online)2210-4925
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rehabilitation
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles