How to format your references using the Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Futuyma, D.J. Retrospective. Robert R. Sokal (1926-2012). Science 2012, 336, 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacCoun, R.; Perlmutter, S. Blind analysis: Hide results to seek the truth. Nature 2015, 526, 187–189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cooper, T.F.; O’Leary, R.A.; Lough, J.M. Growth of Western Australian corals in the anthropocene. Science 2012, 335, 593–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Got, J.-L.; Monteiller, V.; Monteux, J.; Hassani, R.; Okubo, P. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes. Nature 2008, 451, 453–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Praetorius, S.; Schößer, B. Bentonithandbuch; Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG: Berlin, Germany, 2016; ISBN 9783433606568.
An edited book
Miracle of Education: The Principles and Practices of Teaching and Learning in Finnish Schools; Niemi, H., Toom, A., Kallioniemi, A., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2012; ISBN 9789460918117.
A chapter in an edited book
Stern, J.M. Psychological Aspects of Faecal Incontinence. In Fecal Incontinence: Diagnosis and Treatment; Ratto, C., Doglietto, G.B., Lowry, A.C., Påhlman, L., Romano, G., Eds.; Springer: Milano, 2007; pp. 67–71 ISBN 9788847006379.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Astronomers Find Earth-like Planets Orbiting 11-Billion-Year-Old Stars Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NOAA Satellites; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tubbs, M.A. The use of hand-constructed graphs in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for kinematics instruction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Sports Share the Stage at the White House. New York Times 2011, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomies
ISSN (online)2227-7099

Other styles