How to format your references using the Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré, C. Journal Club. An Oceanographer Marvels at the Good Timing of Shrimp. Nature 2009, 461, 1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
McDonnell, D.P.; Norris, J.D. Connections and Regulation of the Human Estrogen Receptor. Science 2002, 296, 1642–1644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, M.D.; Vickery, P.J.; Reinhold, T.A. Reduced Drag Coefficient for High Wind Speeds in Tropical Cyclones. Nature 2003, 422, 279–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosebeck, S.; Madden, L.; Jin, X.; Gu, S.; Apel, I.J.; Appert, A.; Hamoudi, R.A.; Noels, H.; Sagaert, X.; Van Loo, P.; et al. Cleavage of NIK by the API2-MALT1 Fusion Oncoprotein Leads to Noncanonical NF-KappaB Activation. Science 2011, 331, 468–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Westermeier, R. Electrophoresis in Practice; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004; ISBN 9783527603466.
An edited book
Yu, F. Three-Dimensional Model Analysis and Processing; Luo, H., Lu, Z., Wang, P., Eds.; Advanced Topics in Science and Technology in China; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 0; ISBN 9783642126505.
A chapter in an edited book
Voicu, M.-C. Computational Methods for Detecting Types of Nonlinear Dynamics. In Proceedings of the European Computing Conference: Volume 2; Mastorakis, N., Mladenov, V., Kontargyri, V.T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2009; pp. 35–48 ISBN 9780387848181.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Dark Energy May Not Actually Exist (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Competition in the Airline Computerized Reservation System Industry; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg, M.B. Alternative Nitrogen for Subsequent Southern Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) Production Using Cool-Season Legumes. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. A Future as Clouded as Their Past. New York Times 2014, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomies
ISSN (online)2227-7099

Other styles