How to format your references using the Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heki, K. Geophysics. A Tale of Two Earthquakes. Science 2011, 332, 1390–1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zou, L.; Elledge, S.J. Sensing DNA Damage through ATRIP Recognition of RPA-SsDNA Complexes. Science 2003, 300, 1542–1548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakamaki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E. Stability of Hydrous Melt at the Base of the Earth’s Upper Mantle. Nature 2006, 439, 192–194.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
George, D.; Lehrach, W.; Kansky, K.; Lázaro-Gredilla, M.; Laan, C.; Marthi, B.; Lou, X.; Meng, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; et al. A Generative Vision Model That Trains with High Data Efficiency and Breaks Text-Based CAPTCHAs. Science 2017, 358.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118948743.
An edited book
The Polish Language in the Digital Age; Rehm, G., Uszkoreit, H., Eds.; White Paper Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642308109.
A chapter in an edited book
Steensma, A.B. The Central and Posterior Compartments. In Atlas of Pelvic Floor Ultrasound; Hoyte, L.P.J., Steensma, A.B., Eds.; Springer: London, 2008; pp. 63–75 ISBN 9781846285202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economies.

Blog post
Taub, B. Amazonian Frog Pretends To Be An Ant (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Costs and Benefits of a Common Strategic Rotary Launcher Should Be Reassessed Before Further Funds Are Available; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, E.I. Caregiver Wellness: An Inquiry of Health Risks among Frontline Direct Caregivers of the Elderly and Disabled. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Court Rejects Interpretation Of Immigration Drug Law. New York Times 2006, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomies
ISSN (online)2227-7099

Other styles