How to format your references using the Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. US industry starts to think big by acting small. Nature 2000, 408, 621–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiermaier, E.; Sixt, M. IMMUNOLOGY. Fragmented communication between immune cells. Science 2015, 349, 1055–1056.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jan, C.H.; Williams, C.C.; Weissman, J.S. Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling. Science 2014, 346, 1257521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, W.; Min, X.; Chen, X.; Zhu, Y.; Zhou, P.; Cui, S.; Xu, S.; Tao, L.; Song, H. Ag-SiO₂-Er₂O₃ nanocomposites: highly effective upconversion luminescence at high power excitation and high temperature. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hinkelmann, K.; Kempthorne, O. Design and Analysis of Experiments: Advanced Experimental Design; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471709947.
An edited book
Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety; Hansen, J.H.L., Boyraz, P., Takeda, K., Abut, H., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781441996060.
A chapter in an edited book
Chishti, A.S. Assessment of Renal Function. In Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases in the Newborn; Chishti, A.S., Alam, S., Kiessling, S.G., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 117–126 ISBN 9783642399879.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. I’m Stuck Like Glue: Why I Love Magnets and you Should Too Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Advanced Imaging Technology: TSA Needs Additional Information before Procuring Next-Generation Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bouyer, J. Temporary Leadership in Athletics: The Experiences of Interim NCAA Directors of Athletics. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Read All About It, Every Day for 70 Years. New York Times 2003, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomies
ISSN (online)2227-7099

Other styles