How to format your references using the Language Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz, L., 2015. Psychology. Infants explore the unexpected. Science 348, 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petcherski, A.G., Kimble, J., 2000. LAG-3 is a putative transcriptional activator in the C. elegans Notch pathway. Nature 405, 364–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cordier, P., Amodeo, J., Carrez, P., 2012. Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth’s mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates. Nature 481, 177–180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Almaas, E., Kovács, B., Vicsek, T., Oltvai, Z.N., Barabási, A.-L., 2004. Global organization of metabolic fluxes in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Nature 427, 839–843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros, N., Diakoumopoulou, E., Ioannidis, I., Liatis, S., Makrilakis, K., Tentolouris, N., Tsapogas, P., 2006. Diabetes in Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ghetta, V., Gorse, D., Mazière, D., Pontikis, V. (Eds.), 2008. Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems: Status, Open Questions and Challenges, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Guterch, B., Lewandowska-Marciniak, H., Mazur, M., 2015. Source Materials to the Outer Western Carpathian Earthquake of December 3, 1786, in: Guterch, B., Kozák, J. (Eds.), Studies of Historical Earthquakes in Southern Poland: Outer Western Carpathian Earthquake of December 3, 1786, and First Macroseismic Maps in 1858-1901, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 119–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. World’s Poorest Nations Pledge To Go 100% Renewable “As Rapidly As Possible” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Aviation Safety: Additional Actions Needed for Three Safety Programs (No. T-RCED-92-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Esmaili, G., 2006. Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. The Space Between Us. New York Times C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Petcherski and Kimble, 2000; Schulz, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petcherski and Kimble, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Almaas et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Sciences
AbbreviationLang. Sci.
ISSN (print)0388-0001
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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