How to format your references using the Operational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M (2005) Capturing chaos. Nature 435:281
A journal article with 2 authors
Bandyopadhyay PR, Hansen JC (2013) Breakup and then makeup: a predictive model of how cilia self-regulate hardness for posture control. Sci Rep 3:1956
A journal article with 3 authors
Raff MC, Whitmore AV, Finn JT (2002) Axonal self-destruction and neurodegeneration. Science 296:868–871
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luguet A, Graham Pearson D, Nowell GM, et al (2008) Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic sulfides. Science 319:453–456

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann R, Krüger U (2013) Stahlbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Hsu C-H, Yang LT, Park JH, Yeo S-S (eds) (2010) Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 10th International Conference, ICA3PP 2010, Busan, Korea, May 21-23, 2010. Proceedings. Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Schmitt A-D (2016) Earth-Surface Ca Isotopic Fractionations. In: Schmitt A-D, Heuser A, Wombacher F, et al. (eds) Calcium Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 145–172

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operational Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) #Distractinglysexy: Sir Tim Hunt’s Gift To Feminism In Science. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/distractinglysexy-sir-tim-hunt-s-gift-feminism-science/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKenzie RA (2012) A correlational study of servant leadership and teacher job satisfaction in a public education institution. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik DE (2016) Joyce Carol Thomas, 78, Novelist and Poet. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchanan 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Buchanan 2005; Bandyopadhyay and Hansen 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bandyopadhyay and Hansen 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Luguet et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleOperational Research
ISSN (print)1109-2858
ISSN (online)1866-1505
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Strategy and Management
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Management Science and Operations Research
Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Modelling and Simulation
Numerical Analysis

Other styles