How to format your references using the Psychiatric Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Clinics of North America (PSC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Williams R. Slowing the decline. Nature 2010;466:S13-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausner R., Alonso P. An attack on all fronts. Nature 2004;430:930–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojas JP., Torres Sevilla GA., Hussain MM. Can we build a truly high performance computer which is flexible and transparent? Sci Rep 2013;3:2609.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Farooqi IS., Keogh JM., Kamath S., et al. Partial leptin deficiency and human adiposity. Nature 2001;414:34–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gilhus NE., Barnes MP., Brainin M. European Handbook of Neurological Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Modrow S. Molecular Virology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomascak PB., Magna T., Dohmen R. Li Partitioning, Diffusion and Associated Isotopic Fractionation: Theoretical and Experimental Insights. In: Magna T, Dohmen R, editors. Advances in Lithium Isotope Geochemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 47–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Clinics of North America.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Russia Wants To Send People Back To The Moon In 2031. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilmey DG. Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. At the Emmys, a Night of Politics and Trump. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Clinics of North America
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0193-953X
ISSN (online)1558-3147
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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