How to format your references using the Psychiatric Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Clinics of North America (PSC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinge V. 2020 computing: the creativity machine. Nature 2006;440:411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Libby E., Ratcliff WC. Evolution. Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity. Science 2014;346:426–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zaimi K., Ishak A., Pop I. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid. Sci Rep 2014;4:4404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Topál J., Gergely G., Erdohegyi A., et al. Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants. Science 2009;325:1269–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garrison DR., Vaughan ND. Blended Learning in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2007.
An edited book
Masulli F., Mitra S., Pasi G. Applications of Fuzzy Sets Theory: 7th International Workshop on Fuzzy Logic and Applications, WILF 2007, Camogli, Italy, July 7-10, 2007. Proceedings. vol. 4578. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Alieva T., Rodrigo JA., Cámara A., et al. The Linear Canonical Transformations in Classical Optics. In: Healy JJ, Alper Kutay M, Ozaktas HM et al., editors. Linear Canonical Transforms: Theory and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2016. p. 113–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientist At Work: Observing Termite Behaviours, Personalities – And Souls? IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues Related to FAA’s Fiscal Year 1991 Budget Request. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron J. The Use of Evidence Based Interventions in the Classroom for Students with Disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Lincoln Center Festival Director to Step Down. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Clinics of North America
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0193-953X
ISSN (online)1558-3147
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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