How to format your references using the Psychiatric Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Clinics of North America (PSC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wineland D. Norman Ramsey (1915-2011). Nature 2011;480:182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marsan D., Lengliné O. Extending earthquakes’ reach through cascading. Science 2008;319:1076–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li YC., Cheng TH., Gartenberg MR. Establishment of transcriptional silencing in the absence of DNA replication. Science 2001;291:650–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li K., Wang W., Ge M., et al. Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated by photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Sci Rep 2014;4:4922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee G. Bioethics for beginners. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Burneo JG., Demaerschalk BM., Jenkins ME. Neurology: An Evidence-Based Approach. 1st edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bockus NF. Cyber in Space: 2035. In: Blowers M, editor. Evolution of Cyber Technologies and Operations to 2035. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 39–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Fang J. Teenager Invents Energy-Generating Shoe Insoles. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor Funding Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vatankhah I. Purification of Industrial Grade Urea for diesel exhaust pollution reduction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A., Saad H., Hubbard B. Thousands of Residents Still Trapped in Aleppo as Evacuations Break Down. New York Times 2016:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Clinics of North America
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Clin. North Am.
ISSN (print)0193-953X
ISSN (online)1558-3147
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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