How to format your references using the Language Awareness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Awareness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bianchi, D. W. (2015). Pregnancy: Prepare for unexpected prenatal test results. Nature, 522(7554), 29–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guarente, L., & Kenyon, C. (2000). Genetic pathways that regulate ageing in model organisms. Nature, 408(6809), 255–262.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boudvillain, M., de Lencastre, A., & Pyle, A. M. (2000). A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron. Nature, 406(6793), 315–318.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Head, J. W., Chapman, C. R., Strom, R. G., Fassett, C. I., Denevi, B. W., Blewett, D. T., Ernst, C. M., Watters, T. R., Solomon, S. C., Murchie, S. L., Prockter, L. M., Chabot, N. L., Gillis-Davis, J. J., Whitten, J. L., Goudge, T. A., Baker, D. M. H., Hurwitz, D. M., Ostrach, L. R., Xiao, Z., … Nittler, L. R. (2011). Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6051), 1853–1856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cauvin, C., Escobar, F., & Serradj, A. (2010). Cartography and the Impact of the Quantitative Revolution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rajamannan, N. M. (Ed.). (2013). Cardiac Valvular Medicine. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Szabó, G., Szolnoki, A., & Vukov, J. (2010). Mechanisms Supporting Cooperation for the Evolutionary Prisoner’s Dilemma Games. In B. Basu, S. R. Chakravarty, B. K. Chakrabarti, & K. Gangopadhyay (Eds.), Econophysics and Economics of Games, Social Choices and Quantitative Techniques (pp. 24–31). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Awareness.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, March 27). “Moore’s Law” For Carbon Emissions Could Mean The End Of Climate Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). DOD, GSA, and NASA: Federal Acquisition Regulation--Reform of Affirmative Action in Federal Procurement (OGC-98-64). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes-Kelly, M. D. (2010). Translation and interpretation as a means to improve bilingual high school students’ English and Spanish academic language proficiency [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood, C. (2015, December 15). Pursuing Love and an Even More Elusive Goal. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bianchi, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bianchi, 2015; Guarente & Kenyon, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guarente & Kenyon, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Boudvillain et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Head et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Awareness
ISSN (print)0965-8416
ISSN (online)1747-7565
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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