How to format your references using the Language Awareness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Awareness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunten, D. M. (2001). Planetary science. Clues to the Martian atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5548), 1843–1844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rella, S. F., & Uchida, M. (2014). A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene? Scientific Reports, 4, 4046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Applegate, P. J., Lowell, T. V., & Alley, R. B. (2008). Comment on “Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Tang, T.-T., Girit, C., Hao, Z., Martin, M. C., Zettl, A., Crommie, M. F., Shen, Y. R., & Wang, F. (2009). Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene. Nature, 459(7248), 820–823.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Candy, J. V. (2005). Model-Based Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Willis, M. (Ed.). (2016). Staging Science: Scientific Performance on Street, Stage and Screen. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Salton, Y. (2014). The Voice as Subject or Object. In W. Midgley, A. Davies, M. E. Oliver, & P. A. Danaher (Eds.), Echoes: Ethics and Issues of Voice in Education Research (pp. 53–65). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Awareness.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 18). A Glass Of Wine A Day May Help Keep The Heart Disease Away - But Only For 15% Of Us. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Denver International Airport: Baggage Handling, Contracting, and Other Issues (RCED-95-241FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, S. (2019). The Other Side of Adversity: Surviving a Destructive Leader Experience [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, August 4). July’s Most Popular Listings. New York Times, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hunten, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hunten, 2001; Rella & Uchida, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rella & Uchida, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Applegate et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Awareness
ISSN (print)0965-8416
ISSN (online)1747-7565
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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