How to format your references using the Language Awareness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Awareness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tempel, E. (2014). Cosmology: Meet the Laniakea supercluster. Nature, 513(7516), 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zheng, J., & Jia, Z. (2013). Structural biology: tiny enzyme uses context to succeed. Nature, 497(7450), 445–446.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman, S. A., Nedergaard, M., & Windrem, M. S. (2012). Glial progenitor cell-based treatment and modeling of neurological disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6106), 491–495.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bunge, M., Adrian, L., Kraus, A., Opel, M., Lorenz, W. G., Andreesen, J. R., Görisch, H., & Lechner, U. (2003). Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated dioxins by an anaerobic bacterium. Nature, 421(6921), 357–360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, N. (2010). Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fillinger, S., & Elad, Y. (Eds.). (2016). Botrytis – the Fungus, the Pathogen and its Management in Agricultural Systems. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bal-Woźniak, T. (2015). Creating Sustainable Enterprise Using the Substantive Innovativeness Model. In L. O’Riordan, P. Zmuda, & S. Heinemann (Eds.), New Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility: Locating the Missing Link (pp. 89–108). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Awareness.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 15). A New Sporting Competition – Which Balls Are Most Affected By The Magnus Effect? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Information Technology Investment: A Governmentwide Overview (AIMD-95-208). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A. C. (2012). The lived experience of the adult African American female who has lived in multiple foster care placements [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, August 20). Uncertainty in Courthouse Fogs the View at the Stadium. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tempel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Tempel, 2014; Zheng & Jia, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zheng & Jia, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Goldman et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bunge et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Awareness
ISSN (print)0965-8416
ISSN (online)1747-7565
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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