How to format your references using the Language Awareness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Awareness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). First for physics Chicago. Nature, 424(6949), 706–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lane, N., & Martin, W. (2010). The energetics of genome complexity. Nature, 467(7318), 929–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin, I., Abdalati, W., & Fahnestock, M. (2004). Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland’s Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. Nature, 432(7017), 608–610.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Turgeon, J. L., McDonnell, D. P., Martin, K. A., & Wise, P. M. (2004). Hormone therapy: physiological complexity belies therapeutic simplicity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1269–1273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, Q. (2013). Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Woodin, M. A., & Maffei, A. (Eds.). (2011). Inhibitory Synaptic Plasticity (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Šunjić, V., & Petrović Peroković, V. (2016). Illogical Disconnections with Participation of Two Groups. In V. Petrović Peroković (Ed.), Organic Chemistry from Retrosynthesis to Asymmetric Synthesis (pp. 103–141). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Awareness.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 6). This Beautiful Image Shows Black Holes In The Distant Universe. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). FAA Staffing: Better Strategy Needed to Ensure Facilities Are Properly Staffed (No. T-RCED-92-8). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meissner, R. (2009). Analyzing inpatient hospital costs by payer: What do they mean for the future of health care in America? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B., & Chapman, M. M. (2015, October 9). Fiat Chrysler and U.A.W. Reach Deal, With Bigger Raise at Entry Level. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lane & Martin, 2010; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lane & Martin, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Joughin, Abdalati, & Fahnestock, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Turgeon, McDonnell, Martin, & Wise, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Awareness
ISSN (print)0965-8416
ISSN (online)1747-7565
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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