How to format your references using the Biogeochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gies E (2015) Recycling: Lazarus batteries. Nature 526:S100-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Bogdanove AJ, Voytas DF (2011) TAL effectors: customizable proteins for DNA targeting. Science 333:1843–1846
A journal article with 3 authors
Siu ZB, Jalil MBA, Tan SG (2014) Topological state transport in topological insulators under the influence of hexagonal warping and exchange coupling to in-plane magnetizations. Sci Rep 4:5062
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leinders-Zufall T, Brennan P, Widmayer P, et al (2004) MHC class I peptides as chemosensory signals in the vomeronasal organ. Science 306:1033–1037

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino B (2013) Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Medjahed B (2011) Service Composition for the Semantic Web. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Balaji V, Bhatia MB, Kumar R, et al (2010) Agrotags – A Tagging Scheme for Agricultural Digital Objects. In: Sánchez-Alonso S, Athanasiadis IN (eds) Metadata and Semantic Research: 4th International Conference, MTSR 2010, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, October 20-22, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 36–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeochemistry.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Why Was A Child’s “5+5+5=15” Answer Marked As Incorrect? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Telecommunications: Characteristics and Choices of Internet Users. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornelius J (2017) Five Minute Meditation Used to Impact Workplace Meetings. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2016) A Superhero Who Defies Gravity, Despite a Heavy Burden. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gies 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bogdanove and Voytas 2011; Gies 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bogdanove and Voytas 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Leinders-Zufall et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeochemistry
ISSN (print)0168-2563
ISSN (online)1573-515X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

Other styles