How to format your references using the Biogeochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF (2006) American Chemical Society meeting. Snapshots from the meeting. Science 314:47
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleinberg J, Lawrence S (2001) Network analysis. The structure of the Web. Science 294:1849–1850
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch D, Keil P, Jetz W (2012) Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales. Nature 488:78–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Djamei A, Schipper K, Rabe F, et al (2011) Metabolic priming by a secreted fungal effector. Nature 478:395–398

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin E, Nel D, Ólafsson S (2014) Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Andresen M, Nowak C (eds) (2015) Human Resource Management Practices: Assessing Added Value. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Arroyo F, Castellanos J, Mitrana V (2012) Uniform Distributed Pushdown Automata Systems. In: Kutrib M, Moreira N, Reis R (eds) Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems: 14th International Workshop, DCFS 2012, Braga, Portugal, July 23-25, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 64–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeochemistry.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) This 10-Year-Old Kid’s Math Homework Is Baffling The Internet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Intellectual Property: Agencies Progress in Implementing Recent Legislation, but Enhancements Could Improve Future Plans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguerrebere Y (2009) Case study of home-school visits. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2012) A Big Push To Get Going. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kleinberg and Lawrence 2001; Service 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kleinberg and Lawrence 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Djamei et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeochemistry
ISSN (print)0168-2563
ISSN (online)1573-515X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

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