How to format your references using the Biogeochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman HN (2008) Applied physics. Focus on x-ray diffraction. Science 321:352–353
A journal article with 2 authors
Medford JI, Prasad A (2014) Plant Science. Plant synthetic biology takes root. Science 346:162–163
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia Y, Sanchez JA, Wangh LJ (2014) Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci Rep 4:5921
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Carmona-Fontaine C, Matthews HK, Kuriyama S, et al (2008) Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration. Nature 456:957–961

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J, Len IH (2008) Zero Limits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Meersman R, Panetto H, Dillon T, et al (eds) (2014) On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2014 Conferences: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, and ODBASE 2014, Amantea, Italy, October 27-31, 2014, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Álvarez S, Vázquez-Salceda J, Kifor T, et al (2006) Applying Provenance in Distributed Organ Transplant Management. In: Moreau L, Foster I (eds) Provenance and Annotation of Data: International Provenance and Annotation Workshop, IPAW 2006, Chicago, IL, USA, May 3-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 28–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Check Out This Live stream Of Deep Underwater Exploration Around Hawaii. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) [Comments on Claim for Additional Charges on FAA Shipment]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Navarro C (2012) Advocacy services for high-risk Latino families caring for children with autism: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) The Little State With a Big Mess. New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2008; Medford and Prasad 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medford and Prasad 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Carmona-Fontaine et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeochemistry
ISSN (print)0168-2563
ISSN (online)1573-515X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

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