How to format your references using the Biogeochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R (2003) Legal row looms for gene-map firm. Nature 423:470
A journal article with 2 authors
Gravitz L, Pincock S (2014) Sickle-cell disease. Nature 515:S1
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng Y-N, Wu X-C, Ji Q (2004) Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young. Nature 432:383–386
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Venter O, Laurance WF, Iwamura T, et al (2009) Harnessing carbon payments to protect biodiversity. Science 326:1368

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaffikin F, Morrissey M (2011) Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Satapathy SC, Raju KS, Mandal JK, Bhateja V (eds) (2016) Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer and Communication Technologies: IC3T 2015, Volume 3, 1st ed. 2016. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Bhullar GS (2015) Sustainable Rice Production. In: Lichtfouse E, Goyal A (eds) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Cereals. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 107–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Alcohol Makes You Friendlier – But Only To Certain People. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Human Services: Sustained and Coordinated Efforts Could Facilitate Data Sharing While Protecting Privacy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vlajic NA (2014) Dynamics of slender, flexible structures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Another Step Toward Private Farmland. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2003; Gravitz and Pincock 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gravitz and Pincock 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Venter et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeochemistry
ISSN (print)0168-2563
ISSN (online)1573-515X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

Other styles