How to format your references using the Biogeochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biogeochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood D (2012) Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature 488:451–453
A journal article with 2 authors
Russell DG, Nathan CF (2013) Perspective: Graduation time. Nature 502:S7
A journal article with 3 authors
McGinty RK, Henrici RC, Tan S (2014) Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome. Nature 514:591–596
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cooper ER, Andrews CD, Wheatley PS, et al (2004) Ionic liquids and eutectic mixtures as solvent and template in synthesis of zeolite analogues. Nature 430:1012–1016

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides CA (2016) Discrete q-Distributions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Moyer BR, Cheruvu NPS, Hu TC-C (eds) (2014) Pharmaco-Imaging in Drug and Biologics Development: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Barga R, Fontama V, Tok WH (2015) Integration with R. In: Fontama V, Tok WH (eds) Predictive Analytics with Microsoft Azure Machine Learning. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 81–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biogeochemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) You can now buy GMO-free Water in the U.S.A. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega R (2012) Effects of cultural and linguistic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors among elderly Latina women. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Duerden J (2016) Lifting Soccer in a Nation of Basketball. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Southwood 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Southwood 2012; Russell and Nathan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Russell and Nathan 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Cooper et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiogeochemistry
ISSN (print)0168-2563
ISSN (online)1573-515X
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Environmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

Other styles