How to format your references using the Comparative Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard C (2013) Pathology: At the heart of the problem. Nature 493:S10-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith BE, Braun RE (2012) Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions. Science 338:798–802
A journal article with 3 authors
Galloway KE, Franco E, Smolke CD (2013) Dynamically reshaping signaling networks to program cell fate via genetic controllers. Science 341:1235005
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li Q, Xu DZ, Cai CY, Sun CP (2013) Recoil effects of a motional scatterer on single-photon scattering in one dimension. Sci Rep 3:3144

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dinet J (2014) Information Retrieval in Digital Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pérez Martín J, Di Pietro A (eds) (2012) Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity in Fungi. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Vacchi E, Cazzola W, Pillay S, Combemale B (2013) Variability Support in Domain-Specific Language Development. In: Erwig M, Paige RF, Wyk EV (eds) Software Language Engineering: 6th International Conference, SLE 2013, Indianapolis, IN, USA, October 26-28, 2013. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 76–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Migration Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Stopping Mangrove Deforestation In Indonesia Could Help Slow Climate Change. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) A List of Selected GAO Publications Containing Checklists or Guidance on Computer Software Topics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo F (2017) Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J, Lyons M, Hale M, Genzlinger N (2017) The Mission: To Transcend Time and Space. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Smith and Braun 2012; Willyard 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Braun 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Migration Studies
AbbreviationComp. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (online)2214-594X

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