How to format your references using the Comparative Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nibbering ETJ (2014) Imaging techniques. Low-energy electron diffraction at ultrafast speeds. Science 345:137–138
A journal article with 2 authors
Devery JJ 3rd, Stephenson CRJ (2015) Catalysis: dual catalysis at the flick of a switch. Nature 519:42–43
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen MT, Haugen TO, Primmer CR (2002) Contemporary fisherian life-history evolution in small salmonid populations. Nature 419:826–830
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Aoki K, Takahashi K, Kaizu K, Matsuda M (2013) A quantitative model of ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in crowded media. Sci Rep 3:1541

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsch R (2017) Convergence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Navarro-Prieto R, Vidal JL (eds) (2006) HCI related papers of Interacción 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Provencher MT, Frank RF, Gross DJ, Golijanin P (2015) Glenoid. In: Bain GI, Itoi E, Di Giacomo G, Sugaya H (eds) Normal and Pathological Anatomy of the Shoulder. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Migration Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Device Could Allow Deaf People To “Hear” Through Their Tongues. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick DC (2012) Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2016) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM38

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nibbering 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nibbering 2014; Devery and Stephenson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devery and Stephenson 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Aoki et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Migration Studies
AbbreviationComp. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (online)2214-594X

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