How to format your references using the Comparative Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flower HM (2000) Electrochemistry. A moving oxygen story. Nature 407:305–306
A journal article with 2 authors
Lovett BW, Benjamin SC (2009) Comment on “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond.” Science 323:1169; author reply 1169
A journal article with 3 authors
Tobie G, Lunine JI, Sotin C (2006) Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan. Nature 440:61–64
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang W, Lim CC, Korniss G, Szymanski BK (2014) Opinion dynamics and influencing on random geometric graphs. Sci Rep 4:5568

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wrobel GM, Neil E (2009) International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Chen Y-W, C. Jain L (eds) (2014) Subspace Methods for Pattern Recognition in Intelligent Environment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Cherry JD (2009) How Can We Eradicate Pertussis. In: Finn A, Curtis N, Pollard AJ (eds) Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V. Springer US, New York, NY, pp 41–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Migration Studies.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Icelandic Volcano Reveals How Calderas Form. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) [Comments on Senate’s Liability for Special Charges and Taxes Related to Telephone Service]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim B (2013) Essays in the Dynamics Bayesian Models in Marketing. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J (2015) The Patriarch. New York Times BR12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flower 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Flower 2000; Lovett and Benjamin 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lovett and Benjamin 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Migration Studies
AbbreviationComp. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (online)2214-594X

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