How to format your references using the Comparative Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charlebois D (2009) Journal club. A biophysicist ponders the application of hidden metric spaces to genetic networks. Nature 458:811
A journal article with 2 authors
Mechoulam R, Lichtman AH (2003) Neuroscience. Stout guards of the central nervous system. Science 302:65–67
A journal article with 3 authors
Cira NJ, Benusiglio A, Prakash M (2015) Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets. Nature 519:446–450
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pandey M, Syed S, Donmez I, et al (2009) Coordinating DNA replication by means of priming loop and differential synthesis rate. Nature 462:940–943

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marsh N (2014) Forensic Photography. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Haubold HJ, Mathai AM (eds) (2010) Proceedings of the Third UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Madanhire I, Mbohwa C (2016) Green Lubricant Design and Practice Concept. In: Mbohwa C (ed) Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Migration Studies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Mars: The Heavy Metal Rock Star Planet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Survey To Identify Models Used by Executive Agencies in the Policymaking Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moss KA (2017) The Development and Diffusion of the Cult of Isis in the Hellenistic Period. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Clinton Names Team to Probe U.S. Agencies. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charlebois 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Mechoulam and Lichtman 2003; Charlebois 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mechoulam and Lichtman 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Pandey et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Migration Studies
AbbreviationComp. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (online)2214-594X

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