How to format your references using the Comparative Migration Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Migration Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wallsten S (2004) High-tech cluster bombs. Nature 428:121–122
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones RH, Flynn KJ (2005) Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey. Science 307:1457–1459
A journal article with 3 authors
Wyckoff GJ, Wang W, Wu CI (2000) Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature 403:304–309
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakamura D, Gunjishima I, Yamaguchi S, et al (2004) Ultrahigh-quality silicon carbide single crystals. Nature 430:1009–1012

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belsey C (2011) A Future for Criticism. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Selvaggi S, Vollono E, Sicignano G (eds) (2007) e-Learning: Nuovi strumenti per insegnare, apprendere, comunicare online. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Bolotin-Fukuhara M (2006) Genomics and Biodiversity in Yeasts. In: Péter G, Rosa C (eds) Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Migration Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) A Bizarre Five-Star System has Been Found that Doesn’t Look Like Anything We’ve Seen Before. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Telecommunications: FCC Procedures Delay Release of Decision Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Courtney SJ (2015) A Sea of Voices: An Alchemical Journey Through Dissociation. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2010) Graphic Evidence Of Comics Fanatics. New York Times C25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wallsten 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Wallsten 2004; Jones and Flynn 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Flynn 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakamura et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Migration Studies
AbbreviationComp. Migr. Stud.
ISSN (online)2214-594X

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