How to format your references using the Language and Intercultural Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Intercultural Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Jong, G. (2005). Evolution. Is invariance across animal species just an illusion? Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1193–1195.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, Z., & Vollrath, F. (2002). Surprising strength of silkworm silk. Nature, 418(6899), 741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maruyama, M., Lam, K. P., & Rajewsky, K. (2000). Memory B-cell persistence is independent of persisting immunizing antigen. Nature, 407(6804), 636–642.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X.-J., Li, P.-Z., Chen, Y., Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., Chan, X. X., Ganguly, R., Li, Y., Jiang, J., & Zhao, Y. (2013). A rationally designed nitrogen-rich metal-organic framework and its exceptionally high CO(2) and H(2) uptake capability. Scientific Reports, 3, 1149.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinn, J. F. (2013). Dementia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Jankowski, N., Duch, W., & Gra̧bczewski, K. (Eds.). (2011). Meta-Learning in Computational Intelligence (Vol. 358). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Parpinelli, R. S., & Lopes, H. S. (2012). Population Resizing Using Nonlinear Dynamics in an Ecology-Based Approach. In H. Yin, J. A. F. Costa, & G. Barreto (Eds.), Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2012: 13th International Conference, Natal, Brazil, August 29-31, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 27–34). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Intercultural Communication.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, May 27). Galapagos Eruption Threatens Rare Iguanas. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions (T-AIMD-98-266). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, D. S. (2015). Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky, D. (2012, July 30). Romania Votes on Whether to Remove Its President. New York Times, A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Jong, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Jong, 2005; Shao & Vollrath, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao & Vollrath, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Maruyama et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Intercultural Communication
AbbreviationLang. Intercult. Commun.
ISSN (print)1470-8477
ISSN (online)1747-759X
ScopeLinguistics and Language

Other styles