How to format your references using the Language and Intercultural Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Intercultural Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V. (2011). Microenvironment: Neighbourhood watch. Nature, 480(7377), S48-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fengos, G., & Iber, D. (2013). Prediction stability in a data-based, mechanistic model of σF regulation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Scientific Reports, 3, 2755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fowler, J. H., Johnson, T., & Smirnov, O. (2005). Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment. Nature, 433(7021), 1 p following 32; discussion following 32.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Akturk, A., Wasilko, D. J., Wu, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Qiu, J., Luo, Z.-Q., Reiter, K. H., Brzovic, P. S., Klevit, R. E., & Mao, Y. (2018). Mechanism of phosphoribosyl-ubiquitination mediated by a single Legionella effector. Nature, 557(7707), 729–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crook, T., & Kemp, P. A. (2010). Transforming Private Landlords. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Mazzola, G. (2016). All About Music: The Complete Ontology: Realities, Semiotics, Communication, and Embodiment (M. Mannone, Y. Pang, M. O’Brien, & N. Torunsky, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, J., Sekiyama, K., & Fukuda, T. (2009). Cooperative Object Tracking with Mobile Robotic Sensor Network. In H. Asama, H. Kurokawa, J. Ota, & K. Sekiyama (Eds.), Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems 8 (pp. 51–62). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Intercultural Communication.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 10). Climate Warming is Turning Mummies into Black Ooze. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds (T-RCED-98-243). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza, K. M. (2008). The antecedents of automotive brand loyalty and repurchase intentions [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, April 24). Ask Him Anything, Unless It’s About Trump. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fengos & Iber, 2013; Hughes, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fengos & Iber, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Fowler et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Akturk et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Intercultural Communication
AbbreviationLang. Intercult. Commun.
ISSN (print)1470-8477
ISSN (online)1747-759X
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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