How to format your references using the Language and Intercultural Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Intercultural Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2014). Cause is not everything in mental illness. Nature, 511(7511), 509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kress, T. L., & Guthrie, C. (2006). Molecular biology. Accurate RNA siting and splicing gets help from a DEK-hand. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5782), 1886–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hovenden, M. J., Newton, P. C. D., & Wills, K. E. (2014). Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature, 511(7511), 583–586.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Covert, M. W., Knight, E. M., Reed, J. L., Herrgard, M. J., & Palsson, B. O. (2004). Integrating high-throughput and computational data elucidates bacterial networks. Nature, 429(6987), 92–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini, L. (2012). RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Goldberg, I., & Atallah, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 9th International Symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5672). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stathi, S., & Roscini, C. (2016). Identity and Acculturation Processes in Multicultural Societies. In S. McKeown, R. Haji, & N. Ferguson (Eds.), Understanding Peace and Conflict Through Social Identity Theory: Contemporary Global Perspectives (pp. 55–69). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Intercultural Communication.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 26). Home-Brewed Morphine A Step Closer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The National School Lunch Program (No. 103965). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, S. (2014). Teacher Induction Programs: How Key Components Influence Teacher Retention Rates in Rural School Districts [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2008, June 12). Art? Design? You Make the Call. New York Times, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2014; Kress & Guthrie, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kress & Guthrie, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Hovenden et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Covert et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Intercultural Communication
AbbreviationLang. Intercult. Commun.
ISSN (print)1470-8477
ISSN (online)1747-759X
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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