How to format your references using the Language and Intercultural Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Intercultural Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aharonian, F. (2007). The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5808), 70–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Odegaard, J. I., & Chawla, A. (2013). Pleiotropic actions of insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6116), 172–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barna, M., Pandolfi, P. P., & Niswander, L. (2005). Gli3 and Plzf cooperate in proximal limb patterning at early stages of limb development. Nature, 436(7048), 277–281.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pancost, R. D., Steart, D. S., Handley, L., Collinson, M. E., Hooker, J. J., Scott, A. C., Grassineau, N. V., & Glasspool, I. J. (2007). Increased terrestrial methane cycling at the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 449(7160), 332–335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher, M. J. (2010). Retirement Portfolios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ayache, N., Delingette, H., Golland, P., & Mori, K. (Eds.). (2012). Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2012: 15th International Conference, Nice, France, October 1-5, 2012, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 7511). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sworder, D. D., & Boyd, J. E. (2016). Intercept and Target Prediction. In J. E. Boyd (Ed.), Locating, Classifying and Countering Agile Land Vehicles: With Applications to Command Architectures (pp. 91–111). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Intercultural Communication.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 9). “Tree Man” May Have Finally Been Cured Of His Incredible Condition. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Highway Demonstration Projects (RCED-93-193R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reddy, G. S. (2017). Modulo Multipliers with Adaptive Delay for a High Dynamic Range Residue Number System Using Booth Encoding [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eder, S., & Protess, B. (2017, June 5). Trump Business Pivots to Budget-Friendly Hotel Line. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aharonian, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Aharonian, 2007; Odegaard & Chawla, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Odegaard & Chawla, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Barna et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pancost et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Intercultural Communication
AbbreviationLang. Intercult. Commun.
ISSN (print)1470-8477
ISSN (online)1747-759X
ScopeLinguistics and Language

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