How to format your references using the Language and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, Steven. 2014. “Mental Health: Depression Needs Large Human-Genetics Studies.” Nature 515 (7526): 189–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neumann, Gregory A., and Erwan Mazarico. 2009. “Planetary Science. Seeing the Missing Half.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5916): 885–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuwaki, Ryo, Yuji Yagi, and Shiro Hirano. 2014. “Relationship between High-Frequency Radiation and Asperity Ruptures, Revealed by Hybrid Back-Projection with a Non-Planar Fault Model.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7120.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Sang Bok, David T. Mitchell, Lacramioara Trofin, Tarja K. Nevanen, Hans Söderlund, and Charles R. Martin. 2002. “Antibody-Based Bio-Nanotube Membranes for Enantiomeric Drug Separations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5576): 2198–2200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
First, Michael B., and Allan Tasman. 2006. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kalyebara, Baliira. 2014. Corporate Governance, Capital Markets, and Capital Budgeting: An Integrated Approach. Edited by Sardar M. N. Islam. Contributions to Management Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas, E. 2011. “Characteristic Classes and Differentiable Manifolds.” In Classi Caratteristiche e Questioni Connesse, edited by E. Martinelli, 113–187. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Education.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Asshole Businessmen Are Selling Plastic Rice In Nigeria.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. The Treasury Financial Communications System. 129307. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, Susan E. 2012. “Impact of Training Intervention on Emotional Intelligence in Health Care Administrators and Physician Leaders.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shultz, George P., and Pedro Aspe. 2017. “Nafta Needs An Update, Not Repeal.” New York Times, October 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hyman 2014; Neumann and Mazarico 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neumann and Mazarico 2009)
  • Three authors: (Okuwaki, Yagi, and Hirano 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Education
AbbreviationLang. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0782
ISSN (online)1747-7581
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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