How to format your references using the Language and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corden, Jeffry L. 2007. “Transcription. Seven Ups the Code.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5857): 1735–1736.
A journal article with 2 authors
Langelaan, Jack W., and Nicholas Roy. 2009. “Engineering. Enabling New Missions for Robotic Aircraft.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5960): 1642–1644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakai, Takayoshi, Melinda Larsen, and Kenneth M. Yamada. 2003. “Fibronectin Requirement in Branching Morphogenesis.” Nature 423 (6942): 876–881.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ricaurte, George A., Jie Yuan, George Hatzidimitriou, Branden J. Cord, and Una D. McCann. 2002. “Severe Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in Primates after a Common Recreational Dose Regimen of MDMA (‘ecstasy’).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5590): 2260–2263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane, Dean. 2011. The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dries, Lou van Den. 2014. Model Theory in Algebra, Analysis and Arithmetic: Cetraro, Italy 2012, Editors: H. Dugald Macpherson, Carlo Toffalori. Edited by Jochen Koenigsmann, H. Dugald Macpherson, Anand Pillay, Carlo Toffalori, and Alex J. Wilkie. Vol. 2111. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Niephaus, Christian, Mathias Kretschmer, Gheorghita Ghinea, and Senka Hadzic. 2015. “Enabling Converged Satellite and Terrestrial Access Networks.” In E-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 6th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2014, Kampala, Uganda, November 24-25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Amos Nungu, Bjorn Pehrson, and Julianne Sansa-Otim, 43–52. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Do Humans Need Dairy? Here’s The Science.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Airport Improvement Program: Opportunity to Consider FAA’s Role in Meeting Airport System Needs. T-RCED-93-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galyer, Darin L. 2019. “The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, Susan. 2017. “When the Revolution Came for Amy Cuddy.” New York Times, October 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corden 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Corden 2007; Langelaan and Roy 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Langelaan and Roy 2009)
  • Three authors: (Sakai, Larsen, and Yamada 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ricaurte et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Education
AbbreviationLang. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0782
ISSN (online)1747-7581
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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