How to format your references using the Language and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, Barry R. 2011. “WHO Needs Change.” Nature 473 (7346): 143–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, Todd R., and Elizabeth A. Gerken. 2005. “Creation of Visible Artificial Optical Emissions in the Aurora by High-Power Radio Waves.” Nature 433 (7025): 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yelshanskaya, Maria V., Minfen Li, and Alexander I. Sobolevsky. 2014. “Structure of an Agonist-Bound Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6200): 1070–1074.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Audet, Jonathan, Gary Wong, Han Wang, Guangwen Lu, George F. Gao, Gary Kobinger, and Xiangguo Qiu. 2014. “Molecular Characterization of the Monoclonal Antibodies Composing ZMAb: A Protective Cocktail against Ebola Virus.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 6881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lednicer, Daniel. 2015. Antineoplastic Drugs. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Soguel, Nils C., and Pierre Jaccard, eds. 2008. Governance and Performance of Education Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Vail, Andy. 2016. “Protestant Nonconformists: Providers of Educational and Social Services.” In Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century, edited by Peter Ackers and Alastair J. Reid, 121–150. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Mars One Delays Manned Mission To The Red Planet Again, This Time By Five Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Public-Safety Broadband Network: FirstNet Has Made Progress Establishing the Network, but Should Address Stakeholder Concerns and Workforce Planning. GAO-17-569. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, Dillon D. 2017. “Uncovering Three Trumpet Works of Sofia Gubaidulina.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2016. “New Rules for a Tough TV Season.” New York Times, November 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom 2011; Pedersen and Gerken 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Gerken 2005)
  • Three authors: (Yelshanskaya, Li, and Sobolevsky 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Audet et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Education
AbbreviationLang. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0782
ISSN (online)1747-7581
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

Other styles