How to format your references using the Language and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Puglisi, Joseph D. 2015. “Protein Synthesis. The Delicate Dance of Translation and Folding.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6233): 399–400.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferdinand, Nicola K., and Bertram Opitz. 2014. “Different Aspects of Performance Feedback Engage Different Brain Areas: Disentangling Valence and Expectancy in Feedback Processing.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 5986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Almeda, Rodrigo, Tara L. Connelly, and Edward J. Buskey. 2014. “Novel Insight into the Role of Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates in the Fate of Crude Oil in the Sea.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7560.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Morris, Erick J., Jun-Yuan Ji, Fajun Yang, Luisa Di Stefano, Anabel Herr, Nam-Sung Moon, Eun-Jeong Kwon, Kevin M. Haigis, Anders M. Näär, and Nicholas J. Dyson. 2008. “E2F1 Represses Beta-Catenin Transcription and Is Antagonized by Both PRB and CDK8.” Nature 455 (7212): 552–556.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartewig, Siegfried. 2005. IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Vereecken, Wim. 2009. Ultra-Wideband Pulse-Based Radio: Reliable Communication over a Wideband Channel. Edited by Michiel Steyaert. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Skeen, Judy. 2011. “Predator–Prey Relationships: What Humans Can Learn from Horses about Being Whole.” In The Psychology of the Human-Animal Bond: A Resource for Clinicians and Researchers, edited by Christopher Blazina, Güler Boyraz, and David Shen-Miller, 81–106. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Extremely Rare White Orcas Spotted In Russian Waters.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Test and Evaluation: DOD’s Fiscal Year 1989 Test Resource Budget. NSIAD-90-177FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, Sean Xiao. 2009. “Theoretical Models of Olfactory Discrimination in Drosophila.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yeh, James. 2016. “Little Moments.” New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Puglisi 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Puglisi 2015; Ferdinand and Opitz 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferdinand and Opitz 2014)
  • Three authors: (Almeda, Connelly, and Buskey 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Morris et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Education
AbbreviationLang. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0782
ISSN (online)1747-7581
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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