How to format your references using the Language and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wootton, J. Timothy. 2005. “Field Parameterization and Experimental Test of the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity.” Nature 433 (7023): 309–312.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannon, Gregory J., and John J. Rossi. 2004. “Unlocking the Potential of the Human Genome with RNA Interference.” Nature 431 (7006): 371–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu, Qi, Howard Saltsburg, and Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos. 2003. “Active Nonmetallic Au and Pt Species on Ceria-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5635): 935–938.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Michael, Todd P., Patrice A. Salomé, Hannah J. Yu, Taylor R. Spencer, Emily L. Sharp, Mark A. McPeek, Jose M. Alonso, Joseph R. Ecker, and C. Robertson McClung. 2003. “Enhanced Fitness Conferred by Naturally Occurring Variation in the Circadian Clock.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5647): 1049–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szpankowski, Wojciech. 2001. Average Case Analysis of Algorithms on Sequences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abubakar, Muhammad, Ali Saeed, and Oguz Kul, eds. 2015. The Role of Biotechnology in Improvement of Livestock: Animal Health and Biotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
González, Dante Corti, and Roberto Castro Rios. 2009. “Fire Danger, Fire Detection, Quantification of Burned Areas and Description of Post-Fire Vegetation in the Central Area of Chile.” In Earth Observation of Wildland Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems, edited by Emilio Chuvieco, 55–70. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “A Schoolboy In The UK Pointed Out An Error To NASA On The ISS.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Bus Rapid Transit: Projects Improve Transit Service and Can Contribute to Economic Development. GAO-12-811. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emenyonu, Nneka Ijoma. 2012. “Barriers to HIV Care in Rural Uganda.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Besner, Linda. 2017. “Your Happy Place May Be in Need of an Undersea Princess.” New York Times, June 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wootton 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Wootton 2005; Hannon and Rossi 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannon and Rossi 2004)
  • Three authors: (Fu, Saltsburg, and Flytzani-Stephanopoulos 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Michael et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Education
AbbreviationLang. Educ.
ISSN (print)0950-0782
ISSN (online)1747-7581
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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