How to format your references using the Clinical Skin Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Skin Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pormann PE. Interdisciplinarity: Inside Manchester’s “arts lab.” Nature. 2015;525(7569):318-319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barbi E, Vaupel JW. Comment on “Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life-spans.” Science. 2005;308(5729):1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z. A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Science. 2014;344(6179):84-87.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Himeno M, Kitazawa Y, Yoshida T, et al. Purple top symptoms are associated with reduction of leaf cell death in phytoplasma-infected plants. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemma A. Introduction to the Practice of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Abrahamsson P, Oza N, eds. Lean Enterprise Software and Systems: First International Conference, LESS 2010, Helsinki, Finland, October 17-20, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 65. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Dien NK, Hieu TT, Thinh TN. Memory-Based Multi-pattern Signature Scanning for ClamAV Antivirus. In: Dang TK, Wagner R, Neuhold E, Takizawa M, Küng J, Thoai N, eds. Future Data and Security Engineering: First International Conference, FDSE 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 19-21, 2014, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2014:58-70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Skin Cancer.

Blog post
Taub B. English Bulldog Genetic Diversity May Now Be Too Low To Save The Breed. IFLScience. Published July 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety Hazards. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon JR. Microwave-Supported Acid Hydrolysis for Proteomics. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Protess B. Citigroup Pays $97.4 Million To End Inquiry On Oversight. New York Times. May 22, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Skin Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Skin Cancer
ISSN (print)2405-8645

Other styles