How to format your references using the Clinical Skin Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Skin Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang N-X. China’s chemists should avoid the Vanity Fair. Nature. 2011;476(7360):253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brinker CJ, Clem PG. Materials science. Quartz on silicon. Science. 2013;340(6134):818-819.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poinar H, Kuch M, Pääbo S. Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples. Science. 2001;292(5517):743-744.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu Y, Han S, Chu X, Chu S-I, Wang Z. Coherent temporal oscillations of macroscopic quantum states in a Josephson junction. Science. 2002;296(5569):889-892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ngwira M, Manase D. Public Sector Property Asset Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Tonchia S. Performance Measurement: Linking Balanced Scorecard to Business Intelligence. (Quagini L, ed.). Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Barach PR, Cosman PH. Teams, Team Training, and the Role of Simulation. In: Barach PR, Jacobs JP, Lipshultz SE, Laussen PC, eds. Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Care: Volume 2: Quality Improvement and Patient Safety. Springer; 2015:69-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Skin Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Snowball Earth: New Study Shows Antarctic Climate Even Gripped The Tropics. IFLScience. Published April 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: IRS Needs to Better Balance Management Capacity with System Acquisition Workload. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole Jackson M. National school reform: the benefits of civility and ethics instruction. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lohr S. G.E., Pressured By Its Investors, Changes Leader. New York Times. June 12, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Skin Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Skin Cancer
ISSN (print)2405-8645

Other styles