How to format your references using the Clinical Skin Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Skin Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marston G. Chemistry. An elusive intermediate gets caught. Science. 2012;335(6065):178-179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cimpian A, Leslie S-J. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Response to Comment on “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science. 2015;349(6246):391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson KS, Riser SC, Karl DM. Nitrate supply from deep to near-surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Nature. 2010;465(7301):1062-1065.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rosenfeld D, Lohmann U, Raga GB, et al. Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation? Science. 2008;321(5894):1309-1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shahidi A. Balanced Asset Allocation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Drexl J, Grosse Ruse-Khan H, Nadde-Phlix S, eds. EU Bilateral Trade Agreements and Intellectual Property: For Better or Worse? Vol 20. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Noor TH, Sheng QZ, Bouguettaya A. Scalable Availability Model. In: Sheng QZ, Bouguettaya A, eds. Trust Management in Cloud Services. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:59-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Skin Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Satellites and Space Debris Floating Around Earth in Real Time. IFLScience. Published July 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Telecommunications Policy: Demand Dictates Supply. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuñez EM. Getting H.I.P. with First-Generation College Students: Decolonizing the High Impact Practice Movement. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. As a Neighborhood Rebuilds, An Ex-Gadfly Gets Some Clout. New York Times. December 16, 2001:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Skin Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Skin Cancer
ISSN (print)2405-8645

Other styles