How to format your references using the Clinical Skin Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Skin Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fine I. Sensory systems: Do you hear what I see? Nature. 2014;508(7497):461-462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bossuyt F, Milinkovitch MC. Amphibians as indicators of early tertiary “out-of-India” dispersal of vertebrates. Science. 2001;292(5514):93-95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang J, Timusk T, Gu GD. High-transition-temperature superconductivity in the absence of the magnetic-resonance mode. Nature. 2004;427(6976):714-717.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ackerman AS, Kirkpatrick MP, Stevens DE, Toon OB. The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature. 2004;432(7020):1014-1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D. Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Leitner M, ed. Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies. Vol 8. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gillick J, Puri P. Pre-operative Management and Vascular Access. In: Puri P, Höllwarth M, eds. Pediatric Surgery. Springer; 2009:27-38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Skin Cancer.

Blog post
Hale T. Tortoise Receives A 3D-Printed Shell After It Was Burnt In A Forest Fire. IFLScience. Published May 23, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Defaulted Student Loans: Guaranty Agencies’ Collection Practices and Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusso AP. The Psychology of Institutional Development: How Parties’ Willingness to Accept Risk Affects the Districts They Draw and the Seats They Win. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D. CHILDREN’S BOOKS. New York Times. June 20, 1993:723.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Skin Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Skin Cancer
ISSN (print)2405-8645

Other styles