How to format your references using the Plant Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guillén N. (2014) Infection biology: Nibbled to death. Nature 508:462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Antonakis J., Dalgas O. (2009) Predicting elections: child’s play! Science (New York, NY) 323:1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamas-Linares A., Howell J.C., Bouwmeester D. (2001) Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature 412:887–890.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ye L., Kang M., Liu J., von Cube F., Wicker C.R., Suzuki T., Jozwiak C., Bostwick A., Rotenberg E., Bell D.C., Fu L., Comin R., Checkelsky J.G. (2018) Massive Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic kagome metal. Nature 555:638–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalena J.N., Cleary D.A. (2005) Principles of Inorganic Materials Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Terris D.J., Singer M.C. (Eds) (2014) Minimally Invasive and Robotic Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Poveda R.L., Gupta N. (2016) Thermal Expansion of CNF/Polymer Composites. In: Gupta N (ed) Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Biology.

Blog post
Luntz S. (2016) Rising Seas Due To Climate Change Claim Their First Mammal Species. IFLScience [online] URL: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Statistical Agencies: Proposed Consolidation and Data Sharing Legislation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vatankhah I. (2017) Purification of Industrial Grade Urea for diesel exhaust pollution reduction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. (2017) Wimbledon’s Qualifying Tournament Is Both 3½ Miles and a World Away. New York Times:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guillén 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Antonakis & Dalgas 2009; Guillén 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Antonakis & Dalgas 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ye et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Biology
AbbreviationPlant Biol. (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)1435-8603
ISSN (online)1438-8677
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
General Medicine

Other styles