How to format your references using the Plant Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korte M. (2009) Neuroscience. Bridging the gap and staying local. Science (New York, NY) 324:1527–1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X., Ha T. (2013) Defining single molecular forces required to activate integrin and notch signaling. Science (New York, NY) 340:991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song Y.Q., Ryu S., Sen P.N. (2000) Determining multiple length scales in rocks. Nature 406:178–181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong C., Beis K., Nesper J., Brunkan-Lamontagne A.L., Clarke B.R., Whitfield C., Naismith J.H. (2006) Wza the translocon for E. coli capsular polysaccharides defines a new class of membrane protein. Nature 444:226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malpass D.B., Band E.I. (2012) Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nandwani D. (Ed) (2016) Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Siqueira A.C. de (2012) The 2020 World Bank Education Strategy. In: Klees SJ, Samoff J, Stromquist NP (eds) The World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Biology.

Blog post
Hale T. (2017) Great Lakes Funding Could Be Cut By 97 Percent Under New EPA Budget. IFLScience [online] URL: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Within-School Discrimination: Inadequate Title VI Enforcement by the Office for Civil Rights. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ambaw Y. (2017) Promoting the well-being of black student athletes: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rebanks J. (2017) An English Shepherd in America. New York Times:SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korte 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Korte 2009; Wang & Ha 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Ha 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Biology
AbbreviationPlant Biol. (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)1435-8603
ISSN (online)1438-8677
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science
General Medicine

Other styles