How to format your references using the Language and Cognitive Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Cognitive Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Building Nordic networks. Nature, 420(6916 Suppl), A3, A5, A7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan, M. J., & Tibbetts, E. A. (2011). Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1272–1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens, D. W., McLinn, C. M., & Stevens, J. R. (2002). Discounting and reciprocity in an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2216–2218.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yanagi, I., Akahori, R., Hatano, T., & Takeda, K.-I. (2014). Fabricating nanopores with diameters of sub-1 nm to 3 nm using multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Scientific Reports, 4, 5000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H., & Li, G. (2006). OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guy, T. V., Karny, M., & Wolpert, D. (Eds.). (2013). Decision Making and Imperfection (Vol. 474). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Emmett, S. (2013). Toward a Pedagogy of Well-Being for Early Childhood Pre-Service Educators. In J. Z. Wilson (Ed.), Pedagogies for the Future: Leading Quality Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (pp. 27–38). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Cognitive Processes.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 15). Unpredictable Temperature Swings Boost Death Rates in the U.S. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). SEOG Funds: Information on the Distribution of SEOG Funds to Students (No. PEMD-86-1BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, K. (2017). Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, October 3). Justices Take Up Discretion Of the Courts in Sentencing. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sheehan & Tibbetts, 2011; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sheehan & Tibbetts, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Stephens, McLinn, & Stevens, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yanagi, Akahori, Hatano, & Takeda, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Cognitive Processes
AbbreviationLang. Cogn. Process.
ISSN (print)0169-0965
ISSN (online)1464-0732
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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