How to format your references using the Language and Cognitive Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Cognitive Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert, M. (2011). Governments must pay for clean-energy innovation. Nature, 472(7342), 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ishizaki, K., & Noda, S. (2009). Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Nature, 460(7253), 367–370.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi, M. K., Sahu, K. C., & Govindarajan, R. (2014). Why a falling drop does not in general behave like a rising bubble. Scientific Reports, 4, 4771.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, B., He, Z., Jiang, L.-L., Wang, N.-X., & Wang, B.-H. (2014). Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 7577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, M. (2010). Mind Games. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Rau, P. L. P. (Ed.). (2015). Cross-Cultural Design Methods, Practice and Impact: 7th International Conference, CCD 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 9180). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, T. E., Skyttä, P., Hermansson, T., Dehghannejad, M., & Tavakoli, S. (2015). The Skellefte District. In P. Weihed (Ed.), 3D, 4D and Predictive Modelling of Major Mineral Belts in Europe (pp. 93–121). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Cognitive Processes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, July 6). CERN Detects Exotic Particles Amid Rumors Of New Physics. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Comments on Recent GAO Report on its Enterprise Architecture Efforts (GAO-04-190R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez Abadia, J. M. (2014). French for Spanish speakers: A contrastive study of English monolingual, bilingual, and plurilingual adult learners of French [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. R. (2014, August 24). How the Carolinas Fixed Their Blurred Lines. New York Times, SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffert, 2011; Ishizaki & Noda, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ishizaki & Noda, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Tripathi et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Cognitive Processes
AbbreviationLang. Cogn. Process.
ISSN (print)0169-0965
ISSN (online)1464-0732
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

Other styles