How to format your references using the Language and Cognitive Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Cognitive Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J. M. (2015). Annotating the scholarly web. Nature, 528(7580), 153–154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maser, R. S., & DePinho, R. A. (2002). Connecting chromosomes, crisis, and cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5581), 565–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Corwin, E. I., Jaeger, H. M., & Nagel, S. R. (2005). Structural signature of jamming in granular media. Nature, 435(7045), 1075–1078.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, H.-D., Chen, Y.-H., Lin, H.-F., Tao, H.-S., & Liu, W.-M. (2014). Antiferromagnetic metal and Mott transition on Shastry-Sutherland lattice. Scientific Reports, 4, 4829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spatschek, K.-H. (2011). High Temperature Plasmas. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gupta, N., Banerjee, A., & Haas-Kogan, D. (Eds.). (2010). Pediatric CNS Tumors. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andresen, E. (2016). Compensation for Human Rights Violations in Estonia. In E. Bagińska (Ed.), Damages for Violations of Human Rights: A Comparative Study of Domestic Legal Systems (pp. 43–67). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Cognitive Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 13). How Plants Respond To Damage Is Dependent On The Type of Insect Harming It. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Standards of Employee Conduct Need Improvement (FPCD-79-29). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, A. J. (2012). History transformed: Sengoku Daimyo in Japanese popular media [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W. (2015, October 12). Hazing Abuses Mar Asian-American Fraternities. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Maser & DePinho, 2002; Perkel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maser & DePinho, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Corwin et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Cognitive Processes
AbbreviationLang. Cogn. Process.
ISSN (print)0169-0965
ISSN (online)1464-0732
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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