How to format your references using the Langmuir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langmuir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. B. Structural Biology. A Ribosomal Coup: E. Coli at Last! Science 2005, 310 (5749), 793–795.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, B. A. A.; Cleveland, D. W. Comment on “A Centrosome-Independent Role for Gamma-TuRC Proteins in the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.” Science 2007, 316 (5827), 982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santos, F. C.; Santos, M. D.; Pacheco, J. M. Social Diversity Promotes the Emergence of Cooperation in Public Goods Games. Nature 2008, 454 (7201), 213–216.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kang, Y.; Kuybeda, O.; de Waal, P. W.; Mukherjee, S.; Van Eps, N.; Dutka, P.; Zhou, X. E.; Bartesaghi, A.; Erramilli, S.; Morizumi, T.; Gu, X.; Yin, Y.; Liu, P.; Jiang, Y.; Meng, X.; Zhao, G.; Melcher, K.; Ernst, O. P.; Kossiakoff, A. A.; Subramaniam, S.; Xu, H. E. Publisher Correction: Cryo-EM Structure of Human Rhodopsin Bound to an Inhibitory G Protein. Nature 2018, 561 (7724), E44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei, A. R. Extended Finite Element Method; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Multi-Source, Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization; Poibeau, T., Saggion, H., Piskorski, J., Yangarber, R., Eds.; Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Le Bourg, E. Hypergravity in Drosophila Melanogaster. In Mild Stress and Healthy Aging: Applying Hormesis in Aging Research and Interventions; Bourg, E. L., Rattan, S. I. S., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langmuir.

Blog post
Hale, T. Amish House Dust Found To Protect Kids Against Asthma. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Planned Funding Under Letters of Intent; RCED-99-33R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladendorff, M. Z. The Effect of North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection Standards on Bulk Electric System Reliability. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J.; Dolnick, S. Slush and Short Sleeves. New York Times. February 14, 2014, p B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLangmuir
ISSN (print)0743-7463
ISSN (online)1520-5827
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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