How to format your references using the Langmuir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langmuir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orbach, R. L. Retrospective. John Harmen Marburger III (1941-2011). Science 2011, 333 (6047), 1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brent, R.; Lok, L. Cell Biology. A Fishing Buddy for Hypothesis Generators. Science 2005, 308 (5721), 504–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroeder, J. I.; Kwak, J. M.; Allen, G. J. Guard Cell Abscisic Acid Signalling and Engineering Drought Hardiness in Plants. Nature 2001, 410 (6826), 327–330.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wynn, J. G.; Alemseged, Z.; Bobe, R.; Geraads, D.; Reed, D.; Roman, D. C. Geological and Palaeontological Context of a Pliocene Juvenile Hominin at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 2006, 443 (7109), 332–336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brodsky, B. S.; Stanley, B. The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Primer; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Endocrine FGFs and Klothos; Kuro-o, M., Ed.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: New York, NY, 2012; Vol. 728.
A chapter in an edited book
Anuradha, R. V.; Joshi, P. Natural Resources Regime in India: Impact on Trade and Investment. In Emerging Issues in Sustainable Development: International Trade Law and Policy Relating to Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment; Matsushita, M., Schoenbaum, T. J., Eds.; Economics, Law, and Institutions in Asia Pacific; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2016; pp 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langmuir.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Comet To Make Close Approach To Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Chief Information Officers: Ensuring Strong Leadership and an Effective Council; T-AIMD-98-22; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersessian, N. Modified Gravity with Scale Invariance and Implications. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. After a 32-Year Journey, Justice Stevens Renounces Capital Punishment. New York Times. April 18, 2008, p A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLangmuir
ISSN (print)0743-7463
ISSN (online)1520-5827
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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