How to format your references using the Langmuir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langmuir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, M. OPTICS. Topology, Spin, and Light. Science 2015, 348 (6242), 1432–1433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinberg, R.; Fridley, D. The End of Cheap Coal. Nature 2010, 468 (7322), 367–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y.; Zhang, X.; Cao, D. The Role of Shape Complementarity in the Protein-Protein Interactions. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3271.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sun, Y.; Lei, H. X.; Cui, H.; Yang, G. W.; Li, B. J.; Wang, C. X. Si-Doped Ceramic Al4O4C Nanowires: Full-Color Emission and Optical Waveguide Behavior. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R. L. Fundamentals of Telecommunications; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Shoniregun, C. A. Securing Biometrics Applications; Crosier, S., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Magarelli, N.; Carducci, C.; Dell’Atti, C. Imaging of the Shoulder. In Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice; Milano, G., Grasso, A., Eds.; Springer: London, 2014; pp 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langmuir.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Melting Antarctic Ice Sheets And Sea Level Rise: A Warning From The Future. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medical ADP Systems: Automated Medical Records Hold Promise to Improve Patient Care; IMTEC-91-5; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eng, R. Exploring Investors’ Decision Making Processes During the 2008 Financial Crisis Using Epstein’s Cognitive Experiential Self-Theory: A Multiple-Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. The Matches at Indian Wells Come With a Generous Serving of Opulence. New York Times. March 18, 2017, p SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLangmuir
ISSN (print)0743-7463
ISSN (online)1520-5827
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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