How to format your references using the Harm Reduction Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harm Reduction Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Werner R. The focus on bibliometrics makes papers less useful. Nature. 2015;517:245.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mandelli D, Tosatti E. Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators. Nature. 2015;526:332–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lohmann C, Myhr KL, Wong ROL. Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature. 2002;418:177–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sirenko AA, Bernhard C, Golnik A, Clark AM, Hao J, Si W, et al. Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films. Nature. 2000;404:373–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rezg N, Dellagi S, Khatab A. Joint Optimization of Maintenance and Production Policies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Bentley PJ, Lee D, Jung S, editors. Artificial Immune Systems: 7th International Conference, ICARIS 2008, Phuket, Thailand, August 10-13, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Compton V, France B. Working With Technologists on Technology Curriculum Development and Implementation. In: France B, Compton V, editors. Bringing Communities Together: Connecting Learners with Scientists or Technologists. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012. p. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harm Reduction Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Our ‘Rosetta Stone’ Gene Could Unlock The Secrets Of Schizophrenia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/our-rosetta-stone-gene-could-unlock-secrets-schizophrenia/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Unlicensed NII Devices in the 5 GHz Frequency Range. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Feb. Report No.: OGC-97-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Unison-Pace WJ. Investigating generational differences of perceived uncivilized behaviors between students and faculty in nursing education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Loomis G. Three Operas by Rossini Make Italian Festival Well Worth the Trip. New York Times. 2012 Aug 17;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHarm Reduction Journal
AbbreviationHarm Reduct. J.
ISSN (online)1477-7517
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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