How to format your references using the Harm Reduction Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harm Reduction Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dulac C. Neuroscience. Charting olfactory maps. Science. 2006;314:606–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. de Visser JAGM, Rozen DE. Comment on “High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli.” Science. 2004;304:518; author reply 518.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Paniagua-Domínguez R, Abujetas DR, Sánchez-Gil JA. Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1507.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Maida Y, Yasukawa M, Furuuchi M, Lassmann T, Possemato R, Okamoto N, et al. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase formed by TERT and the RMRP RNA. Nature. 2009;461:230–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Alacoque JC. Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors. Chichester, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Lamdin DJ, editor. Consumer Knowledge and Financial Decisions: Lifespan Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Koifman A, Chitayat D, Bashiri A. Genetics of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. In: Bashiri A, Harlev A, Agarwal A, editors. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Evidence-Based Evaluation, Diagnosis and Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harm Reduction Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Mutilated Rhino Treated With Elephant Skin Graft [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/mutilated-rhino-treated-elephant-skin-grafts/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The High-Speed Rail Investment Act of 2001 (S. 250). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jun. Report No.: GAO-01-756R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Armani MD. Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Egan J, Saunders G. Choose Your Own Adventure. New York Times. 2015 Nov 12;MM74.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHarm Reduction Journal
AbbreviationHarm Reduct. J.
ISSN (online)1477-7517
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles