How to format your references using the Harm Reduction Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harm Reduction Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Batista VS. Chemistry. Energy flow under control. Science. 2009;326:245–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Belkaid Y, Grainger J. Immunology. Mucus coat, a dress code for tolerance. Science. 2013;342:432–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Drell SD, Shultz GP, Andreasen SP. Nuclear safety. A safer nuclear enterprise. Science. 2012;336:1236.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McNeil JG, Johnston MI, Birx DL, Tramont EC. Policy rebuttal. HIV vaccine trial justified. Science. 2004;303:961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ferrari ML, Damo UM, Turan A, Sánchez D. Hybrid Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Mathew J, Patra P, Pradhan DK, Kuttyamma AJ, editors. Eco-friendly Computing and Communication Systems: International Conference, ICECCS 2012, Kochi, India, August 9-11, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Darrigol O. Stueckelberg’s Unitary Field Theory of 1936–1939. In: Lacki J, Ruegg H, Wanders G, editors. ECG Stueckelberg, An Unconventional Figure of Twentieth Century Physics: Selected Scientific Papers with Commentaries. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2009. p. 53–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harm Reduction Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. India’s Tiger Population Is Up 30% Since 2010 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/conservation-success-india-s-tiger-population-30-2010/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Consumer Health Informatics: Emerging Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jul. Report No.: T-AIMD-96-134.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Browning A. An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. In Cleveland’s Revival, They Were Champions First. New York Times. 2016 Oct 31;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHarm Reduction Journal
AbbreviationHarm Reduct. J.
ISSN (online)1477-7517
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles