How to format your references using the Harm Reduction Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harm Reduction Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Feldbaum C. Biotechnology. Some history should be repeated. Science. 2002;295:975.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Medema JP, Vermeulen L. Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer. Nature. 2011;474:318–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Balazs AC, Emrick T, Russell TP. Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet. Science. 2006;314:1107–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Oe Y, Tominaga-Yoshino K, Hasegawa S, Ogura A. Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rahman ROA, Rakhimov RZ, Rakhimova NR, Ojovan MI. Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Ciccarelli FD, Miklós I, editors. Comparative Genomics: International Workshop, RECOMB-CG 2009, Budapest, Hungary, September 27-29, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Borghese F, Denti P, Saija R. Multipole Expansions and Transition Matrix. In: Denti P, Saija R, editors. Scattering from Model Nonspherical Particles: Theory and Applications to Environmental Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 73–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harm Reduction Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-89-102FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mayner SW. Transformational leadership and organizational change during agile and devops initiatives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. A Drive to Save a Tiger By the Name of Tammany. New York Times. 2002 Jul 14;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHarm Reduction Journal
AbbreviationHarm Reduct. J.
ISSN (online)1477-7517
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles