How to format your references using the Landslides citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landslides. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sadler JE (2003) Structural biology. A ménage à trois in two configurations. Science 301:177–179
A journal article with 2 authors
Merad M, Salmon H (2015) Cancer: A dendritic-cell brake on antitumour immunity. Nature 523:294–295
A journal article with 3 authors
Tersoff J, Jesson DE, Tang WX (2009) Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide. Science 324:236–238
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhu P, Chen Y-J, Hao J-H, et al (2013) Maternal depressive symptoms related to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in late pregnancy. Sci Rep 3:3096

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sato T, Kammen DM, Duan B, et al (2015) Smart Grid Standards. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Becchi CM (2014) An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions, 2nd ed. 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Giorello G, Sinigaglia C (2007) Space and Movement. On Husserl’s Geometry of the Visual Field. In: Boi L, Kerszberg P, Patras F (eds) Rediscovering Phenomenology: Phenomenological Essays on Mathematical Beings, Physical Reality, Perception and Consciousness. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 103–123

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landslides.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) UN Agrees To Tackle The Urgent Threat Posed By Antibiotic Resistance. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Aviation Security. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn DT (2012) Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters JW, Grynbaum MM (2017) Returning to Role at Brash Website to Push Agenda. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sadler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Sadler 2003; Merad and Salmon 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merad and Salmon 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandslides
ISSN (print)1612-510X
ISSN (online)1612-5118
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles