How to format your references using the Landslides citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landslides. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markov IL (2014) Limits on fundamental limits to computation. Nature 512:147–154
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefe AD, Szostak JW (2001) Functional proteins from a random-sequence library. Nature 410:715–718
A journal article with 3 authors
Mackenzie RB, Dewberry CT, Leopold KR (2015) SULFUR CHEMISTRY. Gas phase observation and microwave spectroscopic characterization of formic sulfuric anhydride. Science 349:58–61
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Getz G, Höfling H, Mesirov JP, et al (2007) Comment on “The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers.” Science 317:1500

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gasch A, Gasch B (2010) Successfully Choosing Your EMR. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Noy A (ed) (2008) Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Viademonte S, Burstein F (2006) From Knowledge Discovery to Computational Intelligence: A Framework for Intelligent Decision Support Systems. In: Forgionne GA, Mora T. M (eds) Intelligent Decision-making Support Systems: Foundations, Applications and Challenges. Springer, London, pp 57–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landslides.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Mother Rat Kicks A Snake’s Ass For Stealing Its Baby. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Highway Infrastructure: FHWA’s Model for Estimating Highway Needs Has Been Modified for State-Level Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McAlpine TE (2008) College students and career: An exploration of vocational anticipatory socialization. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley C (2013) Grad Student With Eye On Career in Finance Is Mourned in China. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markov 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Keefe and Szostak 2001; Markov 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keefe and Szostak 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Getz et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandslides
ISSN (print)1612-510X
ISSN (online)1612-5118
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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