How to format your references using the International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curran, D. P. (2008). Chemistry. Fluorous tags unstick messy chemical biology problems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5896), 1645–1646.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knight, J. C., & Russell, P. S. J. (2002). Applied optics. New ways to guide light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5566), 276–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackstone, E., Morrison, M., & Roth, M. B. (2005). H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5721), 518.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brashares, J. S., Arcese, P., Sam, M. K., Coppolillo, P. B., Sinclair, A. R. E., & Balmford, A. (2004). Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5699), 1180–1183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spector, P. (2016). Understanding Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bender, C. J. (2007). Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR. (L. J. Berliner, Ed.) (Vol. 25). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Yahalom, J., Rimner, A., & Tsang, R. W. (2011). Salvage Therapy for Relapsed and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma. In L. Specht & J. Yahalom (Eds.), Radiotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma (pp. 31–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 13). Enormous “Frog Penis” That Went Viral Isn’t A Penis At All. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). National Airspace System: Initiatives to Reduce Flight Delays and Enhance Capacity are Ongoing but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-05-755T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razzaghi, M. (2013). Quantum Tunneling in Hydride Transfer Reactions in Solution (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2016, December 9). Trump as Cyberbully in Chief? New Twitter Attack Draws Fire. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Curran 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Curran 2008; Knight and Russell 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knight and Russell 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Brashares et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society
AbbreviationInt. J. Polit. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0891-4486
ISSN (online)1573-3416
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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