How to format your references using the International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ueda, K. (2015). PHYSICS. To catch and smash charge on the hop. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6262), 740–741.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cermeño, P., & Falkowski, P. G. (2009). Controls on diatom biogeography in the ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5947), 1539–1541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, M. C., O’Rourke, E. J., & Ruvkun, G. (2008). Fat metabolism links germline stem cells and longevity in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 957–960.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ackermann, M., Stecher, B., Freed, N. E., Songhet, P., Hardt, W.-D., & Doebeli, M. (2008). Self-destructive cooperation mediated by phenotypic noise. Nature, 454(7207), 987–990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Federer, W. T., & King, F. (2007). Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, F. L., Deng, H., Gao, Y., & Lei, J. (Eds.). (2010). Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: International Conference, AICI 2010, Sanya, China, October 23-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 6320). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kunusch, C., Puleston, P., & Mayosky, M. (2012). Assessment of SOSM Techniques Applied to Fuel Cells. Case Study: Electric Vehicle Stoichiometry Control. In P. Puleston & M. Mayosky (Eds.), Sliding-Mode Control of PEM Fuel Cells (pp. 73–103). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 28). Made-To-Order Cartilage Could Combat Osteoarthritis. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Aviation Safety: New Regulations for Deicing Aircraft Could Be Strengthened (No. RCED-93-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alnuaimi, A. N. (2017). The Outside-In Method for Sustainable Design Within the Built Environment Spatial Layers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, September 21). Tax Reform for the Wealthy: Lower Rates but Lose Breaks. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ueda 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cermeño and Falkowski 2009; Ueda 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cermeño and Falkowski 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ackermann et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society
AbbreviationInt. J. Polit. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0891-4486
ISSN (online)1573-3416
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles