How to format your references using the International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Capping active volcanoes. Nature, 428(6980), 347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumaret, R., & Ouazzani, N. (2001). Plant genetics. Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Nature, 413(6857), 700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grant, A. N., Brönnimann, S., & Haimberger, L. (2008). Recent Arctic warming vertical structure contested. Nature, 455(7210), E2-3; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pelejero, C., Calvo, E., McCulloch, M. T., Marshall, J. F., Gagan, M. K., Lough, J. M., & Opdyke, B. N. (2005). Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5744), 2204–2207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez Fontán, F., & Mariño Espiñeira, P. (2008). Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Koshmanenko, V. (2016). The Method of Rigged Spaces in Singular Perturbation Theory of Self-Adjoint Operators. (M. Dudkin, Ed.) (Vol. 253). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lautenbacher, F., Diefenthaler, P., Langermeier, M., Mykhashchuk, M., & Bauer, B. (2013). Planning Support for Enterprise Changes. In J. Grabis, M. Kirikova, J. Zdravkovic, & J. Stirna (Eds.), The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 6th IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference, PoEM 2013, Riga, Latvia, November 6-7, 2013, Proceedings (pp. 54–68). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 7). Google’s Self-Driving Car Now Knows When To Honk Its Horn. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). FAA Information Technology: Complete Cost Data Not Provided to OMB (No. IMTEC-91-22). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razo, S. I. (2009). Parenting practices of Latina mothers and children’s behavior outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2012, May 27). Spacewalk. New York Times, p. ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lumaret and Ouazzani 2001; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lumaret and Ouazzani 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pelejero et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society
AbbreviationInt. J. Polit. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0891-4486
ISSN (online)1573-3416
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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