How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFarland E (2012) Chemistry. Unconventional chemistry for unconventional natural gas. Science 338:340–342
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis CS, McGillicuddy DJ Jr (2006) Transatlantic abundance of the N2-fixing colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Science 312:1517–1520
A journal article with 3 authors
Bormashenko E, Musin A, Grynyov R (2014) Scaling law governing the roughness of the swash edge line. Sci Rep 4:6243
A journal article with 5 or more authors
May C, Rivella S, Callegari J, et al (2000) Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in beta-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human beta-globin. Nature 406:82–86

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D (2005) Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
A OMS, Farshid GP (eds) (2015) Post-Traumatic Arthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Brandão S, Parente M, Silva AR, et al (2015) The Impairment of Female Pelvic Ligaments and Its Relation With Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: Biomechanical Analysis. In: Tavares JMRS, Natal Jorge RM (eds) Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences: Methods and Applications: ICCEBS 2013 -- International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Caiman Tears Quench Thirst of Bee and Butterfly. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) The Treasury Financial Communications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Birtler ER (2014) Group therapy and knowledge of neuroplastic principles: The impact of health literacy on client locus of control in a therapy setting. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2017) Captain America Will Fight Evil Again. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McFarland 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Davis and McGillicuddy 2006; McFarland 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and McGillicuddy 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (May et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles