How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sampat BN (2010) Lessons from Bayh-Dole. Nature 468:755–756
A journal article with 2 authors
Crawley MJ, Harral JE (2001) Scale dependence in plant biodiversity. Science 291:864–868
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb EV, Purtov J, Gorb SN (2014) Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers. Sci Rep 4:5154
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Carmona-Fontaine C, Matthews HK, Kuriyama S, et al (2008) Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration. Nature 456:957–961

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohan N (2014) Advanced Electric Drives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kellomäki S, Kilpeläinen A, Alam A (eds) (2013) Forest BioEnergy Production: Management, Carbon sequestration and Adaptation. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Salman R, Dylla F, Frommberger L (2013) An Approach to Qualitative Emergency Management. In: Zlatanova S, Peters R, Dilo A, Scholten H (eds) Intelligent Systems for Crisis Management: Geo-information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM) 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) The 5p Carrier Bag Charge Has Paved The Way For Other Waste Reduction Policies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Certification of Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Han B (2008) Mechanistic Consequences of Cardiac Oxidative Stress. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari J (2016) Take a Spin With a Pro. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sampat 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Crawley and Harral 2001; Sampat 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crawley and Harral 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Carmona-Fontaine et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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