How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conselice CJ (2004) Astronomy. Unveiling the formation of massive galaxies. Science 304:399–400
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackwell S, Rubie D (2000) GEOPHYSICS: Earth Under Strain. Science 290:1514–1515
A journal article with 3 authors
Pluth MD, Bergman RG, Raymond KN (2007) Acid catalysis in basic solution: a supramolecular host promotes orthoformate hydrolysis. Science 316:85–88
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huo F, Zheng Z, Zheng G, et al (2008) Polymer pen lithography. Science 321:1658–1660

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle M (2016) Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Barthe G, Burdy L, Huisman M, et al (eds) (2005) Construction and Analysis of Safe, Secure, and Interoperable Smart Devices: International Workshop, CASSIS 2004, Marseille, France, March 10-14, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Desprez F, Talia D, Yayhapour R (2013) CoreGRID/ERCIM Workshop on Grids, Clouds and P2P Computing – CGWS2012. In: Caragiannis I, Alexander M, Badia RM, et al. (eds) Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops: BDMC, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, OMHI, Paraphrase, PROPER, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Rhodes Islands, Greece, August 27-31, 2012. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 34–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Why Having Thoughts That Aren’t Yours Doesn’t Make You Delusional. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Air Traffic Control: Preliminary Observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen EL (2015) Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) A Clown and a Correspondent Join the Global Elite. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conselice 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Mackwell and Rubie 2000; Conselice 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackwell and Rubie 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Huo et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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