How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynek BM (2004) Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani. Nature 431:156–159
A journal article with 2 authors
von Storch H, Stehr N (2000) Climate change in perspective. Nature 405:615
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganem NJ, Godinho SA, Pellman D (2009) A mechanism linking extra centrosomes to chromosomal instability. Nature 460:278–282
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sen D, Balakrishnan B, Gabriel N, et al (2013) Improved adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 5 vectors for gene therapy. Sci Rep 3:1832

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anaya-Lara O, Campos-Gaona D, Moreno-Goytia E, Adam G (2014) Offshore Wind Energy Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ernst A, Herth FJF (eds) (2013) Principles and Practice of Interventional Pulmonology. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Chun H-W, Jung S-J, Hwang M-N, et al (2013) Pathway Construction and Extension Using Natural Language Processing. In: Yamamoto S (ed) Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Interaction for Health, Safety, Mobility and Complex Environments: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Nearby Stars Provides A Snapshot Of The Future Of Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) A Second Launch Site for the Shuttle? An Analysis of Needs for the Nation’s Space Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saldivar N (2014) Understanding the impact of AB-12 on the child welfare workforce. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Fitzsimmons EG (2016) Crane Collapse Kills Man on Busy Manhattan Block. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hynek 2004).
This sentence cites two references (von Storch and Stehr 2000; Hynek 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (von Storch and Stehr 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles