How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baulcombe DC (2007) Molecular biology. Amplified silencing. Science 315:199–200
A journal article with 2 authors
Boller T, He SY (2009) Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science 324:742–744
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen TT, Aylward AD, Miller S (2007) A stability limit for the atmospheres of giant extrasolar planets. Nature 450:845–848
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu L, Hausladen A, Zeng M, et al (2001) A metabolic enzyme for S-nitrosothiol conserved from bacteria to humans. Nature 410:490–494

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hickey R (2013) A Dictionary of Varieties of English. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken
An edited book
Buki LP, Piedra LM (eds) (2011) Creating Infrastructures for Latino Mental Health. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Tao C, Li D, Shen F, et al (2013) Phenotyping on EHR Data Using OWL and Semantic Web Technologies. In: Zeng D, Yang CC, Tseng VS, et al. (eds) Smart Health: International Conference, ICSH 2013, Beijing, China, August 3-4, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Asteroids Might Camouflage Themselves With Material From Elsewhere. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) VA Student Financial Aid: Actions Needed to Reduce Overlap in Approval Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bates K (2017) Drivers of Engagement for Volunteers in a Nonprofit. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Itzkoff D, Bertsche R, Spitznagel E, et al (2012) The One-Page Magazine. New York Times MM17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baulcombe 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baulcombe 2007; Boller and He 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boller and He 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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