How to format your references using the Landscape Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M (2002) A game of chance. Nature 419:787
A journal article with 2 authors
Louf R, Barthelemy M (2014) How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling. Sci Rep 4:5561
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian BC, Clarkson JR, Zwier TS (2004) Direct measurement of energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine. Science 303:1169–1173
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jevtov I, Samuelsson T, Yao G, et al (2014) Zebrafish as a model to study live mucus physiology. Sci Rep 4:6653

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov MT (2005) Reliability and Risk Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gravett LS (2016) Learning Agility: The Impact on Recruitment and Retention. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Altman BM, Rasch EK (2016) Purpose of an International Comparable Census Disability Measure. In: Altman BM (ed) International Measurement of Disability: Purpose, Method and Application. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Humans Are Forcing New Species To Appear Through Unnatural Selection. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) ADP Acquisitions: No Improper Actions Found on IRS’ Contract for Data Retrieval System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yates SL (2010) Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes improving care for mothers and babies “Dals, Dosas and me.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, Bosman J (2017) A ‘Passionate’ Seeker of Voter Fraud in Kansas Gets a National Soapbox. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchanan 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Buchanan 2002; Louf and Barthelemy 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Louf and Barthelemy 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jevtov et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape Ecology
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0921-2973
ISSN (online)1572-9761
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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