How to format your references using the Journal of Great Lakes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Great Lakes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J., 2004. Anthropology. The astonishing micropygmies. Science 306, 2047–2048.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.C., Arkin, A.P., 2010. Cell biology. The case for RNA. Science 330, 1185–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris, R.A., Rogers, J., Milosavljevic, A., 2007. Human-specific changes of genome structure detected by genomic triangulation. Science 316, 235–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hang, R., Liu, Y., Zhao, L., Gao, A., Bai, L., Huang, X., Zhang, X., Tang, B., Chu, P.K., 2014. Fabrication of Ni-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization of NiTi alloy and their potential applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 7547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weller, R.B., Hunter, H.J.A., Mann, M.W., 2014. Clinical Dermatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Králová-Hromadová, I., 2016. The Giant Liver Fluke, Fascioloides magna: Past, Present and Future Research, 1st ed. 2016. ed, SpringerBriefs in Animal Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, S., 2011. A 1.488 Approximation Algorithm for the Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem, in: Aceto, L., Henzinger, M., Sgall, J. (Eds.), Automata, Languages and Programming: 38th International Colloquium, ICALP 2011, Zurich, Switzerland, July 4-8, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Does Education Give You Brain Cancer? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda, E.S., 2017. American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stuart, C., GEORGE BRETHERTON; TONI MONKOVIC; ANDREW DAS; LUIS DELOUREIRO, 2010. Breakout Players Of the First Quarter Of the Season. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Diamond, 2004; Liu and Arkin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Arkin, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Great Lakes Research
AbbreviationJ. Great Lakes Res.
ISSN (print)0380-1330
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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