How to format your references using the Journal of Great Lakes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Great Lakes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorne, P.W., 2008. Arctic tropospheric warming amplification? Nature 455, E1-2; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan, P.A., Palmer, R.E., 2005. Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature 434, 367–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Myrskylä, M., Kohler, H.-P., Billari, F.C., 2009. Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature 460, 741–743.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harigaya, Y., Tanaka, H., Yamanaka, S., Tanaka, K., Watanabe, Y., Tsutsumi, C., Chikashige, Y., Hiraoka, Y., Yamashita, A., Yamamoto, M., 2006. Selective elimination of messenger RNA prevents an incidence of untimely meiosis. Nature 442, 45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ray Chaudhuri, N., Chaudhuri, B., Majumder, R., Yazdani, A., 2014. Multi-Terminal Direct-Current Grids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Herman, J.M., Pawlik, T.M., Thomas, C.R., Jr. (Eds.), 2014. Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2nd ed. 2014. ed, Medical Radiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jingura, R.M., 2012. Socio-Economy, Agro-Ecological Zones, Agronomic Practices and Farming System of Jatropha curcas L. in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Carels, N., Sujatha, M., Bahadur, B. (Eds.), Jatropha, Challenges for a New Energy Crop: Volume 1: Farming, Economics and Biofuel. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. US Brings In Nearly Total Ban On All Commercial Trade In Ivory [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. U.S. Telecommunications Policy: Demand Dictates Supply (No. 144265). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega, R., 2012. Effects of cultural and linguistic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors among elderly Latina women (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. A Raging Diva, Centuries Before Soap Operas. New York Times C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thorne, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Sloan and Palmer, 2005; Thorne, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sloan and Palmer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Harigaya et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Great Lakes Research
AbbreviationJ. Great Lakes Res.
ISSN (print)0380-1330
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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