How to format your references using the Journal of Great Lakes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Great Lakes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luo, Z.-X., 2007. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. Nature 450, 1011–1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mesecar, A.D., Koshland, D.E., Jr, 2000. A new model for protein stereospecificity. Nature 403, 614–615.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, A., Romanowicz, B., Takeuchi, N., 2005. An observation of PKJKP: inferences on inner core shear properties. Science 308, 1453–1455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaeffer, J., Burch, N., Björnsson, Y., Kishimoto, A., Müller, M., Lake, R., Lu, P., Sutphen, S., 2007. Checkers is solved. Science 317, 1518–1522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arendt, J.S., Lorenzo, D.K., 2000. Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lim, K.Y.T. (Ed.), 2015. Disciplinary Intuitions and the Design of Learning Environments. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang, Y., Naqvi, S.M., Wang, W., Chambers, J.A., 2014. Frequency Domain Blind Source Separation Based on Independent Vector Analysis with a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Source Prior, in: Naik, G.R., Wang, W. (Eds.), Blind Source Separation: Advances in Theory, Algorithms and Applications, Signals and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 131–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Oceans May Become Too Acidic For Animals To Smell Their Way Around [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Federal Research Grants: Opportunities Remain for Agencies to Streamline Administrative Requirements (No. GAO-16-573). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios, J., 2015. Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. Met Opera Loses Lead In a High-Stakes ‘Tosca.’ New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Luo, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Luo, 2007; Mesecar and Koshland, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mesecar and Koshland, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaeffer et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Great Lakes Research
AbbreviationJ. Great Lakes Res.
ISSN (print)0380-1330
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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