How to format your references using the Journal of Great Lakes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Great Lakes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wallsten, S., 2004. High-tech cluster bombs. Nature 428, 121–122.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeates, T.O., Beeby, M., 2006. Biochemistry. Proteins in a small world. Science 314, 1882–1883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin, J.A., Smith, G., Vargo, A., 2013. Oversimplifying quantum factoring. Nature 499, 163–165.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, W., Pohl, T., Rost, J.M., Rittenhouse, S.T., Sadeghpour, H.R., Nipper, J., Butscher, B., Balewski, J.B., Bendkowsky, V., Löw, R., Pfau, T., 2011. A homonuclear molecule with a permanent electric dipole moment. Science 334, 1110–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schroeder, K., Thompson, T., Frith, K., Pencheon, D., 2012. Sustainable Healthcare. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bredies, K., Clason, C., Kunisch, K., Winckel, G. von (Eds.), 2013. Control and Optimization with PDE Constraints, International Series of Numerical Mathematics. Springer, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Féray, V., Méliot, P.-L., Nikeghbali, A., 2016. An extended deviation result from bounds on cumulants, in: Méliot, P.-L., Nikeghbali, A. (Eds.), Mod-ϕ Convergence: Normality Zones and Precise Deviations, SpringerBriefs in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Asia’s Wildlife-Snaring Crisis Documented In Graphic Photographs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. The Maritime Administration’s Evaluation of the End Products of Research and Development Contracts with Private, Profitmaking Firms (No. PSAD-78-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruiz-Resto, J.V., 2016. The Effects of Technical and Imagery-based Instruction on Aspiring Performing Artists’ Acquisition of Learning Newly Composed Pieces and Improvisation and on Listeners’ Perceived Expressivity (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J., 2017. New York State to Cover Tuition in Cuomo Plan. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brin, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Delude, 2011; Reynolds, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeates and Beeby, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Steger et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Great Lakes Research
AbbreviationJ. Great Lakes Res.
ISSN (print)0380-1330
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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