How to format your references using the Journal of Great Lakes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Great Lakes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levine, D.K., 2009. Economics. Eyes on the prize? Science 323, 1296–1297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padilla, A., Gibson, I., 2000. Science moves to centre stage. Nature 403, 357–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti, C., Kleffe, J., Collins, S., 2007. Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature 445, 47–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ström, L., Karlsson, C., Lindroos, H.B., Wedahl, S., Katou, Y., Shirahige, K., Sjögren, C., 2007. Postreplicative formation of cohesion is required for repair and induced by a single DNA break. Science 317, 242–245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billingsley, J., 2006. Essentials of Mechatronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fabrizi, M.A. (Ed.), 2016. Fantasy Literature: Challenging Genres, Critical Literacy Teaching Series: Challenging Authors And Genres. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogborn, J., 2005. 40 Years of Curriculum Development, in: Boersma, K., Goedhart, M., Jong, O. de, Eijkelhof, H. (Eds.), Research and the Quality of Science Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015. Satellite Image Of The Aral Sea Looks Like An Abstract Painting [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Concerted Effort Needed to Improve Indian Education (No. CED-77-24). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarty, A., 2012. Measuring the impact of training in the implementation of project management information systems (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2008. A Sisterhood Lays a Foundation in Football. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levine, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Levine, 2009; Padilla and Gibson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padilla and Gibson, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Ström et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Great Lakes Research
AbbreviationJ. Great Lakes Res.
ISSN (print)0380-1330
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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