How to format your references using the Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raushel FM (2013) Biochemistry. Not an oxidase, but a peroxidase. Science 342(6161):943–944
A journal article with 2 authors
Lorincz A, Nusser Z (2010) Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels. Science 328(5980):906–909
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer E, Ding Y, Cadwell K (2014) An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature 516(7529):94–98
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fang Y, Wang C-F, Zhang Z-H, Shao H, Chen S (2013) Robust self-healing hydrogels assisted by cross-linked nanofiber networks. Sci Rep 3:2811

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid R, Fraser-King G, Schwaderer WD (2006) Data Lifecycles. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sacco GM, Tzitzikas Y (Eds.) (2009) Dynamic Taxonomies and Faceted Search: Theory, Practice, and Experience. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Maalej W, Thurimella AK (2013) DUFICE: Guidelines for a Lightweight Management of Requirements Knowledge. In Maalej W, Thurimella AK (eds) Managing Requirements Knowledge Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy.

Blog post
Fang J (2014, August 6) Small Dog-Sized Dinosaur Discovered in Venezuela. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Oversight of DOJ Funds for Recreational Activities.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Austin CA (2013) Intravenous Exposure of Pregnant Mice to Silver Nanoparticles: Silver Tissue Distribution and Effects in Maternal and Extra-Embryonic Tissues and Embryos. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Koblin J (2017, June 7) Journalists Fear Effects Of an Arrest. New York Times

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
AbbreviationKnee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc.
ISSN (print)0942-2056
ISSN (online)1433-7347
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles