How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vohs, K. D. (2013). Psychology. The poor’s poor mental power. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6149), 969–970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rascón, C., & Parry, A. O. (2000). Geometry-dominated fluid adsorption on sculpted solid substrates. Nature, 407(6807), 986–989.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kagawa, F., Miyagawa, K., & Kanoda, K. (2005). Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature, 436(7050), 534–537.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Meshorer, E., Erb, C., Gazit, R., Pavlovsky, L., Kaufer, D., Friedman, A., Glick, D., Ben-Arie, N., & Soreq, H. (2002). Alternative splicing and neuritic mRNA translocation under long-term neuronal hypersensitivity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5554), 508–512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl, B., Herrenknecht, M., Maidl, U., & Wehrmeyer, G. (2011). Maschineller Tunnelbau im Schildvortrieb. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Barneva, R. P., Brimkov, V. E., & Aggarwal, J. K. (Eds.). (2012). Combinatorial Image Analaysis: 15th International Workshop, IWCIA 2012, Austin, TX, USA, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7655). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duncan, I. D., & Kondo, Y. (2013). Exogenous Cell Myelin Repair and Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis. In I. D. Duncan & R. J. M. Franklin (Eds.), Myelin Repair and Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis (pp. 93–127). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 13). Scientists Shocked To Discover Eukaryote With NO Mitochondria. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Managers Need To Provide Better Protection for Federal Automatic Data Processing Facilities (FGMSD-76-40). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felix, R. C. (2015). Strengthening relationships for siblings in foster families: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, February 28). 2nd Etan Patz Jury Knew Members of First Jury Were Watching, Defense Says. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vohs, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Rascón & Parry, 2000; Vohs, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rascón & Parry, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Kagawa et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Meshorer et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles