How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kurchan, J. (2005). In and out of equilibrium. Nature, 433(7023), 222–225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boolchand, P., & Bresser, W. J. (2001). Mobile silver ions and glass formation in solid electrolytes. Nature, 410(6832), 1070–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kogan, A., Amasha, S., & Kastner, M. A. (2004). Photon-induced Kondo satellites in a single-electron transistor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1293–1295.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nonoguchi, Y., Ohashi, K., Kanazawa, R., Ashiba, K., Hata, K., Nakagawa, T., … Kawai, T. (2013). Systematic conversion of single walled carbon nanotubes into n-type thermoelectric materials by molecular dopants. Scientific Reports, 3, 3344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. (2005). Continuous Direct-Heat Rotary Dryers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Winkler, D., Biffl, S., & Bergsmann, J. (Eds.). (2015). Software Quality. Software and Systems Quality in Distributed and Mobile Environments: 7th International Conference, SWQD 2015, Vienna, Austria, January 20-23, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 200). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimirovski, G. M. (2016). Learning Intelligent Controls in High Speed Networks: Synergies of Computational Intelligence with Control and Q-Learning Theories. In V. Sgurev, R. R. Yager, J. Kacprzyk, & V. Jotsov (Eds.), Innovative Issues in Intelligent Systems (pp. 111–139). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 11). Can Money Buy You Happiness? It’s Complicated. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Pell Grants: Who Receives Them and What Would Larger Grants Cost? (No. HRD-88-106BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanag, H. B. (2017). Building bridges of hope after loss: A self-directed workbook for foster parents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, January 13). Victor Lownes, 88, Rake and Colleague of Hefner. New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mazin, 2015; Tauris, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boolchand & Bresser, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Kogan, Amasha, & Kastner, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Leinekugel et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles