How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2003). Japanese team makes stem cells. Nature, 423(6940), 577.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, F., & Lee, D.-H. (2011). The electron-pairing mechanism of iron-based superconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6026), 200–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jenkins, N., Saam, J. R., & Mango, S. E. (2006). CYK-4/GAP provides a localized cue to initiate anteroposterior polarity upon fertilization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5791), 1298–1301.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, J., Lin, J., Huang, X., Zhou, Y., Chen, Y., Xia, J., Wang, H., Xie, Y., Yu, H., Lei, J., Wu, D., Liu, F., Fu, Q., Zeng, Q., Hsu, C.-H., Yang, C., Lu, L., Yu, T., Shen, Z., … Liu, Z. (2018). A library of atomically thin metal chalcogenides. Nature, 556(7701), 355–359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anthony, B., Boudnik, K., Adams, C., Shao, B., Lee, C., & Sasaki, K. (2016). Professional Hadoop®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kirylo, J. D. (Ed.). (2013). A Critical Pedagogy of Resistance: 34 Pedagogues We Need to Know. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Birmpas, G., Courcoubetis, C., Giotis, I., & Markakis, E. (2015). Cost-Sharing Models in Participatory Sensing. In M. Hoefer (Ed.), Algorithmic Game Theory: 8th International Symposium, SAGT 2015, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 28-30, 2015. Proceedings (pp. 43–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 2). It’s Official: One Joint Of Cannabis Makes You Lazy … But Only In The Short Term. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened (GAO-10-981T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coar, H. (2010). Using mandalas to support grieving female adolescents: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, May 15). New York Mulls New Bid. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2003; Wang & Lee, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Lee, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Jenkins et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles