How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eichinger, N. (2007). Getting in the frame. Nature, 446(7131), 104–105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kind, R., & Yuan, X. (2010). Geophysics. Seismic images of the biggest crash on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5998), 1479–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero, P., van Dam, J. A., & Kouwenhoven, L. P. (2006). Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes. Nature, 439(7079), 953–956.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hubbert, C., Guardiola, A., Shao, R., Kawaguchi, Y., Ito, A., Nixon, A., Yoshida, M., Wang, X.-F., & Yao, T.-P. (2002). HDAC6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase. Nature, 417(6887), 455–458.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2015). Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kozłowski, K. R. (Ed.). (2009). Robot Motion and Control 2009 (Vol. 396). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, Y. J., Yang, J. Y., Kim, Y. M., Lee, J., & Choi, C. (2016). Modeling Behavior of Mobile Application Using Discrete Event System Formalism. In S. Y. Ohn & S. D. Chi (Eds.), Model Design and Simulation Analysis: 15th International Conference, AsiaSim 2015, Jeju, Korea, November 4-7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 40–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 2). Rosetta Gets Great View Of The “Dark Side” Of Comet 67P. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). High Risk Series: NASA Contract Management (HR-93-11). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, D. B. (2009). Nurse educators’ leadership styles and nurse graduates’ licensure passage rates [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2002, March 17). Where Mu sic: Will Be Coming From. New York Times, 629.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eichinger, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Eichinger, 2007; Kind & Yuan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kind & Yuan, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Jarillo-Herrero et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hubbert et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles