How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H. (2011). Multiple myeloma. Nature, 480(7377), S33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwefel, H. G. L., & Türeci, H. E. (2015). Optics. A chaotic approach clears up imaging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6231), 189–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green, E. D., Watson, J. D., & Collins, F. S. (2015). Human Genome Project: Twenty-five years of big biology. Nature, 526(7571), 29–31.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gleyzes, S., Kuhr, S., Guerlin, C., Bernu, J., Deléglise, S., Busk Hoff, U., … Haroche, S. (2007). Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature, 446(7133), 297–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J. C. (2017). Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Elewa, A. M. T. (Ed.). (2005). Migration of Organisms: Climate Geography Ecology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Mello, S., & Graesser, A. (2006). Affect Detection from Human-Computer Dialogue with an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. Gratch, M. Young, R. Aylett, D. Ballin, & P. Olivier (Eds.), Intelligent Virtual Agents: 6th International Conference, IVA 2006, Marina Del Rey, CA, USA, August 21-23, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 54–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 9). Born this way? An evolutionary view of ‘gay genes.’ Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Comments on Loan Guarantee Provisions of H.R. 13350, the 1977 Authorization Bill for the Energy Research and Development Administration (No. B-178726). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puebla, R. A. (2014). The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2014, August 17). A Summer Delight on a Split Bun. New York Times, p. LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brody, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brody, 2011; Schwefel & Türeci, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwefel & Türeci, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Green, Watson, & Collins, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gleyzes et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles