How to format your references using the Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Panksepp, J. (2003). Neuroscience. Feeling the pain of social loss. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5643), 237–239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vrabioiu, A. M., & Mitchison, T. J. (2006). Structural insights into yeast septin organization from polarized fluorescence microscopy. Nature, 443(7110), 466–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Renata, H., Zhou, Q., & Baran, P. S. (2013). Strategic redox relay enables a scalable synthesis of ouabagenin, a bioactive cardenolide. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6115), 59–63.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Silva, J., Chambers, I., Pollard, S., & Smith, A. (2006). Nanog promotes transfer of pluripotency after cell fusion. Nature, 441(7096), 997–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geier, R., Angelmaier, V., Graubner, C.-A., & Kohoutek, J. (2017). Integrale Brücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wang, H., Qi, H., Che, W., Qiu, Z., Kong, L., Han, Z., Lin, J., & Lu, Z. (Eds.). (2015). Intelligent Computation in Big Data Era: International Conference of Young Computer Scientists, Engineers and Educators, ICYCSEE 2015, Harbin, China, January 10-12, 2015. Proceedings (Vol. 503). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chu, L.-Y., Xie, R., Ju, X.-J., & Wang, W. (2013). Functional Membranes with Thermo-responsive Hydrogel Gates. In R. Xie, X.-J. Ju, & W. Wang (Eds.), Smart Hydrogel Functional Materials (pp. 111–133). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 29). Astonishingly Well-Preserved Dinosaur Found With Fossilized Tail Feathers And Skin Tissue. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Ways To Improve Management of Federally Funded Computerized Models (LCD-75-111). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey, T. N. (2016). Effects of low pass filtered input on adult non-lexical intonation in second language acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, November 3). Momentum for Tax Reform, Thanks to Trump’s Tactics. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Panksepp, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Panksepp, 2003; Vrabioiu & Mitchison, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vrabioiu & Mitchison, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Renata et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Silva et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (print)0189-322X

Other styles