How to format your references using the Applied Radiation and Isotopes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Radiation and Isotopes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M., 2003. Small world, big hopes. Nature 426, 478–479.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, H.S.C., Jenner, F.E., 2012. The global pattern of trace-element distributions in ocean floor basalts. Nature 491, 698–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferguson, N.M., Donnelly, C.A., Anderson, R.M., 2001. The foot-and-mouth epidemic in Great Britain: pattern of spread and impact of interventions. Science 292, 1155–1160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Min, J.-H., Yang, H., Ivan, M., Gertler, F., Kaelin, W.G., Jr, Pavletich, N.P., 2002. Structure of an HIF-1alpha -pVHL complex: hydroxyproline recognition in signaling. Science 296, 1886–1889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd, R.K., Basic, C., Bethem, R.A., 2008. Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Burton, B., 2015. Acting to Manage Conflict and Bullying Through Evidence-Based Strategies. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wong, R.H.C., Jiao, M.R., Chau, K.T., 2006. Numerical and Experimental Study on Progressive Failure of Marble, in: Yin, X.-C., Mora, P., Donnellan, A., Matsu’ura, M. (Eds.), Computational Earthquake Physics: Simulations, Analysis and Infrastructure, Part I, Pageoph Topical Volumes. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 1787–1801.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Smartphone App Allows Tourists To Monitor Illegal Wildlife Crime [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Information Technology: IRS Needs to Improve the Reliability and Transparency of Reported Investment Information (No. GAO-14-298). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corona, B., 2012. Laws governing the treatment, involuntary detention and community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar, F., Sophia Chang on, Koblin, J., Nate Schweber in, Lazo, A., Connecticut, A.S. in, 2006. That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (O’Neill and Jenner, 2012; Watanabe, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Neill and Jenner, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Min et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Radiation and Isotopes
AbbreviationAppl. Radiat. Isot.
ISSN (print)0969-8043

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