How to format your references using the Applied Radiation and Isotopes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Radiation and Isotopes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ernst, T., 2013. Engineering. Controlling the polarity of silicon nanowire transistors. Science 340, 1414–1415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Capraro, V., Marcelletti, A., 2014. Do good actions inspire good actions in others? Sci. Rep. 4, 7470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deleault, N.R., Lucassen, R.W., Supattapone, S., 2003. RNA molecules stimulate prion protein conversion. Nature 425, 717–720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicewarner-Pena, S.R., Freeman, R.G., Reiss, B.D., He, L., Pena, D.J., Walton, I.D., Cromer, R., Keating, C.D., Natan, M.J., 2001. Submicrometer metallic barcodes. Science 294, 137–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doldi, L., 2005. Validation of Communications Systems with SDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Romero, A.J., 2014. Preventing Adolescent Depression and Suicide Among Latinas: Resilience Research and Theory, SpringerBriefs in Psychology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mandow, L., de la Cruz, J.L.P., 2009. A Memory-Efficient Search Strategy for Multiobjective Shortest Path Problems, in: Mertsching, B., Hund, M., Aziz, Z. (Eds.), KI 2009: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 32nd Annual German Conference on AI, Paderborn, Germany, September 15-18, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. ‘Rubber Hand’ Illusion May Build Understanding of Sensory Processing In Autistic Brains [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Federal Aviation Administration: Viability of Current Funding Structure for Aviation Activities and Observations on Funding Provisions of Reauthorization Proposals (No. GAO-07-1104T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Radcliffe, M.L., 2012. Random Graphs with Attribute Affinity (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Federer Is Seeded 17th but Gets a Friendly Draw. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ernst, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Capraro and Marcelletti, 2014; Ernst, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Capraro and Marcelletti, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Nicewarner-Pena et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Radiation and Isotopes
AbbreviationAppl. Radiat. Isot.
ISSN (print)0969-8043

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