How to format your references using the Applied Radiation and Isotopes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Radiation and Isotopes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kühlbrandt, W., 2014. Biochemistry. The resolution revolution. Science 343, 1443–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicewicz, D.A., MacMillan, D.W.C., 2008. Merging photoredox catalysis with organocatalysis: the direct asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes. Science 322, 77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chu, L., Xiao, K.-J., Yu, J.-Q., 2014. Room-temperature enantioselective C-H iodination via kinetic resolution. Science 346, 451–455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, C., Hong, B., Choi, J.M., Kim, Yugene, Watanabe, S., Ishimi, Y., Enomoto, T., Tada, S., Kim, Youngchang, Cho, Y., 2004. Structural basis for inhibition of the replication licensing factor Cdt1 by geminin. Nature 430, 913–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hewitt, A., 2016. Construction Claims & Responses. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Krishnan, S.P.T., 2015. Building Your Next Big Thing with Google Cloud Platform: A Guide for Developers and Enterprise Architects. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Tonelli, A.R., Rouhani, F., Brantly, M.L., 2016. United States Targeted Detection Program for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, in: Wanner, A., Sandhaus, R.A. (Eds.), Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease, Respiratory Medicine. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Elon Musk Is About To Test The “Trickiest” Part Of His Mars Spaceship — A Giant, Potentially Explosive Black Orb [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Programs and Overlapping Target Groups (No. HEHS-95-4FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soma, V.M., 2016. A particle filter methodology for salient object detection in videos (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Jeezy Tops Chart in 3-Way Battle. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kühlbrandt, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kühlbrandt, 2014; Nicewicz and MacMillan, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nicewicz and MacMillan, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Radiation and Isotopes
AbbreviationAppl. Radiat. Isot.
ISSN (print)0969-8043

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