How to format your references using the Applied Radiation and Isotopes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Radiation and Isotopes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stierle, A., 2008. Materials science. Tracking corrosion cracking. Science 321, 349–350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, Q., Paroo, Z., 2010. Molecular biology. Dicer’s cut and switch. Science 328, 314–315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hahnloser, R.H.R., Kozhevnikov, A.A., Fee, M.S., 2002. An ultra-sparse code underlies the generation of neural sequences in a songbird. Nature 419, 65–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang, W., Ghisletti, S., Saijo, K., Gandhi, M., Aouadi, M., Tesz, G.J., Zhang, D.X., Yao, J., Czech, M.P., Goode, B.L., Rosenfeld, M.G., Glass, C.K., 2011. Coronin 2A mediates actin-dependent de-repression of inflammatory response genes. Nature 470, 414–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinclair, E., 2013. Volatility Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zanjirani Farahani, R., Hekmatfar, M. (Eds.), 2009. Facility Location: Concepts, Models, Algorithms and Case Studies, Contributions to Management Science. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Boutellier, R., Heinzen, M., 2014. Technology Speed and Substitution, in: Heinzen, M. (Ed.), Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise, Management for Professionals. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. This Startup Cleans Up Algae From Infested Lakes And Uses It To Make Shoes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. 2015 Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brake Rule: Comparison of DOT Forecasts for Selected Data Points for 2015 and 2016 to Preliminary Data for Those Years (No. GAO-17-567R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trahan, M.W., 2015. Large-scale 20th Century Warming Identified in the East Siberian Arctic Using Tree-ring Carbon Isotope Records (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stierle, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Liu and Paroo, 2010; Stierle, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Paroo, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Radiation and Isotopes
AbbreviationAppl. Radiat. Isot.
ISSN (print)0969-8043

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