How to format your references using the Applied Radiation and Isotopes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Radiation and Isotopes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rocha, E.P.C., 2013. Evolution. With a little help from prokaryotes. Science 339, 1154–1155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neale, M.J., Keeney, S., 2006. Clarifying the mechanics of DNA strand exchange in meiotic recombination. Nature 442, 153–158.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulepati, S., Héroux, A., Bailey, S., 2014. Structural biology. Crystal structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex bound to a ssDNA target. Science 345, 1479–1484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, Y., Wang, H.-Y., Li, Y., Guo, S.-H., Zhang, L., Cai, J.-H., Cao, H.-M., Wang, C.-Y., Wang, H., Liu, L., 2014. Peripheral blood miRNAs as a biomarker for chronic cardiovascular diseases. Sci. Rep. 4, 5026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grist, F., 2010. Basic Guide to Orthodontic Dental Nursing. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Taylor, A.D., 2008. Mathematics and Politics: Strategy, Voting, Power and Proof, 2nd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bornstein, S., Han, G.-W., Hoot, K., Lu, S.-L., Wang, X.-J., 2009. TGFβ-Mediated Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis in Skin and Head-and-Neck Cancer, in: Tachikawa, T., Nose, K., Ohmori, T., Adachi, M. (Eds.), New Trends in the Molecular and Biological Basis for Clinical Oncology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 69–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Radiation and Isotopes.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. The Science Of Why Bacon Smells So Damn Good [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. America COMPETES Acts: Overall Appropriations Have Increased and Have Mainly Funded Existing Federal Research Entities (No. GAO-13-612). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colna, K.E., 2017. Latitudinal Position and Trends of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its Relationship with Upwelling in the Southern Caribbean Sea and Global Climate Indices (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Fitting More Into That Bag. New York Times E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rocha, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Neale and Keeney, 2006; Rocha, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neale and Keeney, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Radiation and Isotopes
AbbreviationAppl. Radiat. Isot.
ISSN (print)0969-8043

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