How to format your references using the Kidney International Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney International Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Friedman JM. Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 2000; 404: 632–634.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. King DA, Thomas SM. Big lessons for a healthy future. Nature 2007; 449: 791–792.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Redhu SK, Castronovo M, Nicholson AW. Digital imprinting of RNA recognition and processing on a self-assembled nucleic acid matrix. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3: 2550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Warita K, Warita T, Beckwitt CH et al. Statin-induced mevalonate pathway inhibition attenuates the growth of mesenchymal-like cancer cells that lack functional E-cadherin mediated cell cohesion. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 7593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fortey RA, Bruton DL. Lower Ordovician Trilobites of the Kirtonryggen Formation, Spitsbergen. Norway: The Lethaia Foundation; 2013.
An edited book
1. Zwaag S van der ed. Self Healing Materials: An Alternative Approach to 20 Centuries of Materials Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Forlini C, Bratu A, Forlini M et al. Current Concepts and Management of Severely Traumatized Tissues in the Inner Coatings (The Anterior Segment: Anterior Chamber Structures, the Iris and the Lens) of the Globe: Mechanical Injuries. In: Sobacı G, ed. Current Concepts and Management of Eye Injuries. London: Springer, 2016, pp.41–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney International Supplements.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. The Cacao Tree Is A Lot Older Than We Thought. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gallardo-Macias R. Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chang S. School Scandals: A Scorecard. New York Times. February 5, 2006:14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney International Supplements
AbbreviationKidney Int. Suppl. (2011)
ISSN (print)2157-1724
ISSN (online)2157-1716

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