How to format your references using the Kidney International Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney International Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marzari F. Planetary science. Puzzling Neptune Trojans. Science 2006; 313: 451–452.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Moura AC de A, Lee PC. Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forest. Science 2004; 306: 1909.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rokas A, Krüger D, Carroll SB. Animal evolution and the molecular signature of radiations compressed in time. Science 2005; 310: 1933–1938.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 2002; 416: 640–644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fabozzi FJ, Drake PP. Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Shahnia F, Rajakaruna S, Ghosh A eds. Static Compensators (STATCOMs) in Power Systems. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mao C, Qin SF, Wright D. Sketching-Out Virtual Humans: A Smart Interface for Human Modelling and Animation. In: Butz A, Fisher B, Krüger A, et al., eds. Smart Graphics: 8th International Symposium, SG 2007, Kyoto, Japan, June 25-27, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp.36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney International Supplements.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch Live Webcast of Second Total Lunar Eclipse of 2014. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Geographic Information System: Forest Service Has Resolved GAO Concerns About Its Proposed Nationwide System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Orbinati AG. Spirituality and learning: An exploration into the understanding of spirituality in adult education. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Pilon M. Felix’s 200-Meter Win May Help Settle the 100. New York Times. July 1, 2012:SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney International Supplements
AbbreviationKidney Int. Suppl. (2011)
ISSN (print)2157-1724
ISSN (online)2157-1716

Other styles