How to format your references using the ACS Synthetic Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACS Synthetic Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. The Promise of T. Cruzi Genomics. Nature 2010, 465 (7301), S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Darst, C. R.; Cummings, M. E. Predator Learning Favours Mimicry of a Less-Toxic Model in Poison Frogs. Nature 2006, 440 (7081), 208–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumar, P.; Narayan, R.; Johnson, J. L. Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitor Stars. Science 2008, 321 (5887), 376–379.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Foster, J. S.; Khodadad, C. L. M.; Ahrendt, S. R.; Parrish, M. L. Impact of Simulated Microgravity on the Normal Developmental Time Line of an Animal-Bacteria Symbiosis. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H.; Holt, E. Small Animal Ophthalmology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective; Haszpra, L., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinclair, N.; Arzarello, F.; Gaisman, M. T.; Lozano, M. D.; Dagiene, V.; Behrooz, E.; Jackiw, N. Implementing Digital Technologies at a National Scale. In Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain: The 17th ICMI Study; Hoyles, C., Lagrange, J.-B., Eds.; New ICMI Study Series; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACS Synthetic Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. The Farthest Stars In The Milky Way Might Come From Another Galaxy (accessed 2018 -10 -30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Emergency Communications Need Clarification; LCD-80-91; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, P. L. Advancing Electroanalytical Methods for Monitoring Chemical Messenger Release. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, I. Hamburger Helper. New York Times. July 14, 2004, p A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleACS Synthetic Biology
AbbreviationACS Synth. Biol.
ISSN (online)2161-5063

Other styles